English Language Arts

Introduction

The redesigned English Language Arts curriculum presents what students are expected to know, understand, and be able to do from Kindergarten to Grade 12.

The curriculum is designed to empower students by providing them with strong communication skills, an understanding and appreciation of language and literature, and the capacity to engage fully as literate and responsible citizens in a digital age. Students are guided in their learning to think critically, creatively, and reflectively; to construct a sense of personal and cultural identity; and to be respectful of a range of perspectives and worldviews. The accompanying Rationale and Goals affirm the foundational role of English Language Arts (ELA) education in British Columbia schools.

Features of the English Language Arts curriculum

Flexible teaching and learning

The components of the curriculum work together in a dynamic and flexible way to support deeper learning. Within each grade, there is no single or “correct” way to combine pieces from each of the curriculum components. Rather, the structure allows for a great deal of choice in the ways in which the pieces can be combined to create lessons, units, and learning experiences.

The curriculum also remains flexible in its accommodation of a variety of program structures, as well as school and community contexts. The open design promotes the creation of instructional approaches that combine two or more areas of learning, without mandating any particular form of interdisciplinary learning.

An integrated approach to learning

The redesigned curriculum represents an integrated and holistic approach to teaching and learning. In the English Language Arts curriculum, all six of the language arts elements (reading, listening, viewing, writing, speaking, and representing) are inextricably interconnected. The development of competency in one element supports the development of competency in another, often simultaneously.

The redesigned curriculum retains the organization of curricular competencies into the two modes of language use: “receptive,” represented by the Curricular Competencies listed under Comprehend and Connect, and “expressive,” represented by the Curricular Competencies under Create and Communicate.

First Peoples Principles of Learning

The First Peoples Principles of Learning (PDF) are embedded in the ELA curriculum. These principles were developed with First Peoples educators and community members and have been affirmed within First Peoples societies to guide the teaching and learning of provincial curricula. The First Peoples Principles of Learning not only honour British Columbia’s First Peoples and their perspectives on pedagogy, but also, with regard to the ELA curriculum, promote experiential and reflexive learning, as well as self-advocacy and personal accountability in learners.

Embedding the First Peoples Principles of Learning in the curriculum helps to create classroom cultures based on the concepts of community, shared learning, and trust. These principles and First Peoples content are not add-ons or separate units in ELA, but are woven into the fabric of the curriculum.

Transferability of learning

Students benefit from ELA not only by gaining the ability to communicate effectively in the classroom, but also by receiving knowledge, competencies, and understanding that are transferrable across the curriculum and to life outside school. The redesigned ELA curriculum supports students in becoming educated citizens by:

  • contributing to their overall cognitive development
  • helping them develop language and thinking strategies that can be applied to new contexts
  • developing their cultural awareness and understanding
  • helping them learn to read for information and enjoyment
  • deepening their understanding of the importance of identity
  • enhancing their understanding of how their language is constructed, how it works, and how it is dynamic, changing with time and circumstance
  • preparing them for success in future educational and career contexts

Design of the English Language Arts curriculum

As in all areas of learning, the key concepts and competencies of the ELA curriculum are organized around the Know-Do-Understand learning model. These are captured in Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). More information about this model is available at www.curriculum.gov.bc.ca.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are generalizations and principles that students are able to discover through the Content and the Curricular Competencies of the curriculum. They represent the “aha!” moments of the curriculum. The Big Ideas in ELA reflect a variety of important concepts and competencies, such as strategies, connection-building, identity, diverse perspectives, and cultural awareness.

Many of the Big Ideas progress and deepen over time; others remain constant. The sample Big Ideas below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

  K-1 3 4-5 6-7 10-12
Big Ideas Everyone has a unique story to share. Stories can be understood from different perspectives. Texts can be understood from different perspectives. Exploring and sharing multiple perspectives extends our thinking.

People understand text differently depending on their worldviews and perspectives. 

Texts are socially, culturally, geographically, and historically constructed. 

Content

Content represents the knowledge students will acquire as a result of their learning at a given grade in ELA; it is what students are expected to know. Content represents what students need to know to be able to achieve the Curricular Competencies. In each grade, each topic in the Content column can potentially be applied through multiple Curricular Competencies.

As the excerpt from the Grade 5 curriculum, below, shows, knowledge of “literary elements” and “literary devices” in the Content column enables the student to “Recognize how literary elements, techniques, and devices enhance meaning in texts” in the Curricular Competencies column.

Grade 5

Curricular Competencies

Using oral, written, visual, and digital texts,students are expected individually and collaboratively to be able to:

Comprehend and connect (reading, listening, viewing)
  • Recognize how literary elements, techniques, and devices enhance meaning in texts

Content

Students are expected to know the following:

Story/text:
  • literary elements
  • literary devices

Students deepen their learning as they build on their Content knowledge from year to year, through the study of specific topics and through the range of texts in which they encounter the topics. Some topics appear in more than one year, as they may take longer to fully acquire or they may address more advanced Curricular Competencies. When identical topics appear in multiple grades, the elaborations further clarify the depth and breadth to which the topic should be addressed at each grade.

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided for many of the Content and Curricular Competencies learning standards in the ELA curriculum. The Elaborations offer definitions, clarifications, examples, and further information about the topics or competencies at a given grade. Elaborations are not a mandatory part of the curriculum; they have been included simply to provide teachers with additional clarity and support. They may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching ELA.

Content Elaborations

Some Elaborations are repeated across grade levels to avoid prescription and to allow teachers to use professional judgment in selecting specific aspects of the Elaborations according to the needs of the learner and the learning context. However, many Elaborations show increasingly elevated expectations across grade levels.

The sample topic below illustrates how the scope and depth of learning grows as learners progress along a growth continuum.

 

1

3

4

8

ELA 10–12

Content

literary elements and devices

literary elements and devices

literary elements

literary devices

literary elements

literary devices

literary elements and devices

Elaborations

•  poetic language, figurative language, sound play, images, colour, symbols

 

•  descriptive language, poetic language, figurative language, images, imagery, rhythm, rhyme, simile, alliteration

 

•  literary elements: theme, character, setting, plot, conflict, and purpose

•  literary devices: sensory detail (e.g., imagery) and figurative language (e.g., metaphor, simile)

•  literary devices: sensory detail (e.g., imagery) and figurative language (e.g., metaphor, simile)

 

•  Texts use various literary devices, including figurative language, according to purpose and audience.

 

Curricular Competencies

The Curricular Competencies describe what students should be able to do with the knowledge they have gained. English Language Arts is a process-driven area of learning: students develop as they engage with language and texts. This emphasis on process can be seen in the greater detail of the Curricular Competencies learning standards, compared with the Content learning standards. The process-oriented focus reflects the fact that a primary goal of ELA is to enable students to become competent and effective users and creators of a wide variety of texts in diverse contexts, including digital texts. Through purposeful communication, learners can develop competencies in listening to understand; communicating effectively; presenting information and ideas with confidence and fluency; and understanding the connections between language and culture.

Students build on their Curricular Competencies as they move through the grades. The sample Curricular Competencies below illustrate how the curriculum progresses from grade to grade, expanding in scope and deepening in complexity.


 

K

1

4

ELA 10–12

EFP 10–12

Curricular
Competencies

Recognize the structure of story

Recognize the structure and elements of story

Identify how story in First Peoples cultures connects people to land

Recognize and appreciate the role of story, narrative, and oral tradition in expressing First Peoples perspectives, values, beliefs, and points of view

Identify the role of story and oral tradition in expressing First Peoples perspectives, values, beliefs, and points of view

Important Considerations

Selection of texts

“Text” in the ELA curriculum is defined as any oral, visual, or written communication, including digital. Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of engaging and grade-appropriate text types in their classrooms, including First Peoples and other Canadian texts, as well as multicultural texts in a variety of formats, such as digital and multi-genre texts. While allowing as much student choice as possible, it is important that students be introduced to text that is accessible yet challenging.

Grammar, usage, and conventions

Learning about the English language, including its grammar, conventions, usage, and the ways in which language develops over time, is important for students. The learning of grammar provides students with a valuable meta-language — that is, a language with which to talk about language. However, research evidence is clear that, in order for the teaching to be effective, grammar and language skills should be taught within a purposeful context rather than in isolation. Otherwise, there is little or no transference from learning about grammar and conventions to students’ abilities to read or write better.

All forms of text have conventions, including grammar and usage, which vary depending on the form. For example, punctuation applies only to written language. Film and oral language have their own conventions as well. The purpose of conventions is to assist in meaningful communication; their use should thus reflect the purpose of and audience for the text. Students should be introduced to standard written English while also recognizing that there are many other varieties of English, each reflecting a specific cultural, social, or professional context (Passman, Roger, and McKnight, Katherine S., 2007, Teaching Writing in the Inclusive Classroom: Strategies and Skills for All Students, Jossey-Bass).

Literary terms and techniques

Knowledge of literary terms and techniques builds students’ skills in literary analysis by giving them a language with which to talk about texts and the techniques used by authors. It also expands students’ awareness of the techniques available to them in their own writing. The ELA curriculum includes instruction on literary terms and techniques within the context of meaningful texts and contexts, rather than in isolation from such contexts.

Handwriting

It is important that students be able to communicate in a variety of ways. In the past, written formats were the primary method of communication, and cursive writing therefore held a great deal of importance. Today’s students are able to communicate in a variety of ways and are not limited to paper and pen. However, it is still important that students be able to read others’ handwritten texts and communicate their ideas in handwriting, as well as in electronic formats. The focus should be on legibility in handwriting and the ability to communicate clearly, rather than on a particular style of handwriting.

Theoretical underpinnings

The theoretical underpinning of the ELA curriculum is constructivism, or meaning-making. Constructivism is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction, as opposed to passively receiving information. Learners are the makers of meaning and knowledge. The ultimate goal of reading is “a construction of meaning from text. It is an active, cognitive, and affective process,” where readers actively engage with the text and build their own understanding (J. Braunger and J.P. Lewis, 2006, Building a Knowledge Base in Reading, 2nd ed., International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachers of English, 59).

Students should be provided with a variety of activities and texts that allow them to make meaning in their world. It follows that the content of the ELA curriculum should be taught, learned, and assessed holistically.

The ELA curriculum is informed by a strength-based approach to teaching and learning. In the early years, students come to understand that everyone can be a reader and a writer, and it is intended that this understanding will remain with them as they progress through the grades and will become a lifelong understanding.

Critical literacy

Critical literacy is a lens through which all text is viewed as being constructed for a purpose. Students should be taught to question text, challenge authorial authority, investigate an author’s beliefs, and detect bias in relation to others’ texts, as well as their own. Critical literacy also allows students to determine viewpoints that may be missing and to examine a variety of other perspectives (David Booth, 2011, Caught in the Middle: Reading and Writing in the Transition Years, Pembroke).

In order to engage in active citizenship, and to avoid manipulation by others, it is crucial that students be able to assess and analyze text. Teaching students to read critically is especially important in an era in which they are exposed to an almost continuous stream of media and information.


English Language Arts 10–12 Curriculum: English Language Arts 10–12 and English First Peoples 10–12

Overview

There is a common English Language Arts curriculum from Kindergarten to Grade 9. In Grades 10-12, students may take courses in English Language Arts 10-12 or English First Peoples 10-12. Both English 10-12 and English First Peoples 10-12 satisfy the English Language Arts requirements. These two courses are academically equivalent, and both are accepted for entrance to post-secondary education. 

The Communications 11/12 curriculum and the Communications 12 examination have been discontinued.

Elements of the integrated resource packages for English and English First Peoples are incorporated throughout the redesigned English Language Arts 10-12 and English First Peoples 10-12 curricula.

Students explore a wide range of First Peoples and other Canadian texts, as well as multicultural texts. A broad variety of genres and text types is included, such as oral, digital, mixed media, graphic, and visual texts. 

Context

As with English Language Arts K-9, the redesigned English Language Arts 10-12 curriculum supports both disciplinary and interdisciplinary learning, encourages locally developed curriculum, and enables a variety of learning environments and school and classroom configurations. This flexibility supports teachers and students wanting to organize learning through interdisciplinary inquiries that focus on project-based learning, problem-based learning, or learning through design. Central features of the English Language Arts 10-12 curriculum include the following:

  • Core and curricular competencies remain central to BC’s redesigned curriculum framework and apply from Kindergarten through to graduation.
  • Curriculum in Grades 10-12 maintains the same structure as in Grades K-9, including Big Ideas, Curricular Competencies, and Content.
  • The Grades 10-12 provincial curricula consist of both curriculum that all students are required to study and curricula that students may choose from (options).

Structure

All English Language Arts 10-12 and English First Peoples 10-12 required and optional courses share a similar structure, designed to ensure that all BC students receive a well-rounded and comprehensive language arts education during the Graduation years, and to provide BC graduates with the literacy skills and competencies required for success in further education, in careers, and in everyday life. 

There are no prerequisites, and students may move freely between the English Language Arts and English First Peoples “tracks” as they progress through the grade levels. Students may choose any option at any grade, regardless of which options(s) they have taken in the previous grade. It is expected that students will achieve the required learning standards for each grade level whether they have taken the same option in a previous grade or they are new to the particular option.

All students are required to take an English Language Arts Grade 12 course (English Studies 12 or English First Peoples 12), which represents “essential learning” in language arts. Students take the Grade 12 course once only, and it may be taken in either Grade 11 or Grade 12.

The following is the structure for the redesigned curriculum for English Language Arts 10–12 and English First Peoples 10–12. Your feedback is encouraged.

English Language Arts 10–12

  • Course codes, course names, and course credits are attached to the five optional courses and the required Grade 12 course.
  • All required and optional courses share a common set of English Language Arts learning standards.
Grade 10
4 credits
Grade 11
4 credits
Grade 12
4 credits
Choose two 2-credit options:
  • Literary Studies
  • Composition
  • Spoken Language
  • New Media
  • Creative Writing
Choose one 4-credit option:
  • Literary Studies
  • Composition
  • Spoken Language
  • New Media
  • Creative Writing

English Studies 12
4-credit required course

The following courses will also be offered as additional 4-credit options:

  • Literary Studies
  • Composition
  • Spoken Language
  • New Media
  • Creative Writing

As shown above, the options in English Language Arts 10-12 at Grades 10, 11, and 12 are Literary Studies, Composition, Spoken Language, New Media, and Creative Writing. There is also a required English Studies 12 course for all students.

Grade 10 students will select two of the courses for a total of four credits. Grade 11 students will select one of the courses for a total of four credits. Students may take the same option at two different levels — for example, Composition 10 and Composition 11 — to allow them to explore a particular area with greater depth, complexity, and sophistication. The learning standards in the options at the Grade 11 level are more expansive and elevated than those at the Grade 10 level. 

All students will take the required English Studies 12 course (or English First Peoples 12) for a total of four credits. This course is structured to include a full range of text types and related curricular competencies, to ensure that students will achieve the comprehensive range of ELA knowledge, skills, and understandings for success in school and beyond. 

For additional credits, students may also take one or more of the Grade 12 four-credit options.

English First Peoples 10-12

  • Course codes, course names, and course credits are attached to the five optional courses and the required Grade 12 course.
  • All required and optional courses share a common set of English Language Arts learning standards.
Grade 10
4 credits
Grade 11
4 credits
Grade 12
4 credits
Choose two 2-credit options:
  • Writing
  • Literary Studies
  • New Media
  • Spoken Language
Choose one 4-credit option:
  • Literary Studies and Writing
  • Literary Studies and New Media
  • Literary Studies and Spoken Language
English First Peoples 12
4-credit required course

Students may take English First Peoples courses in Grades 10, 11, and 12, as shown above.

Grade 10 students will select two of the courses for a total of four credits. Grade 11 students will select one of the courses for a total of four credits. All students will take the required English First Peoples 12 course (or English Studies 12) for a total of four credits. For additional Grade 12 credits, students may take optional course(s) from the five English Language Arts options.

Optional courses (areas of choice)

All courses include an appropriate balance of reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and representing, and all courses are equally challenging. There are no easy options, and there is no risk of learning gaps or deficits. 

The optional courses provide the opportunity for students gain a solid English Language Arts education, experienced through the particular lens or focus of the selected options and by means of exploring the specific texts, contexts, and applications associated with each option. 

The learning standards in the options are common to those in the Grade 12 course, so that foundational skills in language arts are addressed in both the optional courses and the Grade 12 course. This equips students with a comprehensive range of language arts skills and abilities, regardless of which specific option they take. For example, in Spoken Language, while the particular focus is on the development of strong speaking and listening skills in a variety of contexts, students will also be required to read and write, view and represent.

Enabling students to be active participants in their learning is well recognized as a powerful motivator. For this reason, choice is provided for students early in the Graduation years, as a testament to their capacity as young adults to make judicious selections from a variety of English Language Arts areas of choice and to allow them to have a sense of agency in their own education. This is consistent with a strength-based rather than a deficit-based approach to education.

Maximizing student achievement: Underlying principles of the English Language Arts 10–12 curriculum structure

The English Language Arts 10-12 and English First Peoples 10-12 curricula are designed to maximize student achievement through the application of the following underlying principles.

High expectations

It is important to maintain high expectations for all students. The intention is to provide English Language Arts 10-12 curricula with a “low floor and high ceiling” (L. Schnellert, N. Widdess, and L. Watson, 2015, It’s All About Thinking: Creating Pathways for All Learners in Middle Years, Portage & Main Press), with many entry points and with the high degree of academic rigour that is embodied in the existing English Language Arts 10-12 and English First Peoples 10-12 curricula. The necessity for all students to have strong literacy skills is recognized, whether students aspire to pursue a university degree or college program or to proceed directly to the workplace: “Many trades programs require high levels of literacy, and feedback from employers involved in programs such as ACE IT is that we need to do a better job in K–12 of supporting high levels of literacy” (FNESC Research).

An inclusive curriculum model

Approaches have differed in terms of how to best address the needs of BC’s diverse learners. In the redesigned English Language Arts 10–12 curriculum model, an inclusive approach is taken, designed for the benefit of all learners. The intention is to separate students according to choice and interest, rather than according to ability or perceived ability. The focus will be on differentiated opportunities for learning within common courses that are open to all students, rather than on courses that are themselves differentiated. The approach is based on the understanding that all students can potentially do better in mixed-ability groups. As well, self-esteem and motivation are generally enhanced by not separating students into a “lower” stream.

Choice

The aim of the English Language Arts 10-12 curriculum structure is to maximize students’ chances of success by allowing them to choose the areas of choice that are most engaging for them and to achieve deeper learning. Because the curriculum has been redesigned to be less prescriptive and more flexible, students have more opportunities to pursue their interests, aspirations, and passions and to benefit from more specialized areas of language arts study. Choice also includes providing students with more opportunities to select the types of texts they will use, such as in the context of literature circles: “Research has demonstrated that access to self-selected texts improves students’ reading performance. . . . This is especially true for struggling readers . . . ” (Krashen, 2011, as quoted at http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar12/vol69/num06/Every-Child,-Every-Day.aspx)

Credit allocation

The English Language Arts 10-12 curriculum (English Language Arts 10-12 and English First Peoples 10-12) includes the same number of required credits (minimum of 12 credits) as the current curriculum.

Literacy across the curriculum

Students should be supported in their language and literacy learning across the curriculum so that all teachers help students with reading and writing in their subject areas. In this way, all teachers are teachers of literacy.

Provincial assessment

Graduation assessments are changing to align with the redesigned curriculum and international trends for large-scale assessments. Course-based provincial exams are being retired and a new Graduation Literacy Assessment is being introduced.   

 

Introduction

The ability to design and make, acquire skills as needed, and apply technologies is important in the world today and a key aspect of educating citizens for the future.

The Applied Skills learning area has been re-envisioned as a K–12 program and renamed. The new Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies (ADST) curriculum is an experiential, hands-on program of learning through design and creation that includes skills and concepts from traditional and First Peoples practice; from the existing disciplines of Business Education, Home Economics, Information Technology, and Technology Education; and from new and emerging fields. It envisions a K–12 continuum fostering the development of the skills and knowledge that will allow students to create practical and innovative responses to everyday needs and problems.

K–5 Foundations

Students in Kindergarten to Grade 5 will have opportunities to develop foundations in Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies within the context of existing curricula.

The curriculum provides Big Ideas and Curricular Competencies for Kindergarten but does not include any Content learning standards. The intent and requirement is that teachers use the learning standards for Curricular Competencies from Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies
K–5 with grade-level content from other subject areas to provide students with cross-curricular opportunities to develop foundational mindsets and skills in design thinking and making.

In the early years, students will be given opportunities to develop foundational skills in Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies through exploratory and purposeful play. As they get older and develop an interest in knowing how things work and making things that work, they will have opportunities to develop foundational skills in activities that have a practical and real-life focus. Students in Kindergarten to Grade 5 will develop the skills for design thinking and a maker mindset in cross-curricular contexts that they will bring to future explorations in Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies.

Grades 6–9 Explorations

Students in Grades 6 to 9 will have opportunities to explore specific areas of Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies while continuing to build their design thinking and foundational skills.

The Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies 6–9 curriculum encompasses content from the four existing Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies disciplines (Business Education, Home Economics, Information and Communications Technology, and Technology Education) and new and emerging fields, and provide opportunities for choice, modularization, and a variety of delivery options. This approach provides provincial recognition of the variety and scope of existing locally developed middle years programs and a template for the development of additional
local programs.

As a result of their explorations in Grades 6 to 9, students may begin to show particular interest in and aptitude for specific Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies areas and set more specialized learning goals.

Grades 10–12 Specializations

Students in Grades 10 to 12 will have opportunities to specialize in a specific area or to continue to explore their interests in more than one area. The specialization might be within the disciplines Business Education, Culinary Arts, Home Economics, Information and Communications Technology, Media Arts, Technology Education, or Tourism, across these and other areas, or in emerging disciplines. The specialization might be driven by students’ desire for practical skills in a particular area, their interests and passions, or their plans for post-secondary education or careers. This will allow students in Grades 10 to 12, who are becoming increasingly independent, to personalize their learning by pursuing interests that are relevant to them.

Features of the ADST curriculum

  • There is a renewed focus on designing and making, the acquisition of skills, and the application of technologies
  • The ADST curriculum is now a provincial curriculum for K–12 that can be delivered in different ways at different grade levels
  • There is a common set of curricular competencies for all of the ADST (formerly Applied Skills) curricula that can also be used as a template for locally developed options now and in the future

Design of the ADST curriculum

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas of the ADST curriculum are derived from the Curricular Competencies. The Big Ideas are intended to capture a progression of learning in applying design processes, skills, and technologies, as shown in the chart below. 

  K–3 4–5 6–8 9–10 11–12
Applied Design Designs grow out of natural curiosity. Designs can be improved with prototyping and testing. Design can be responsive to identified needs. Social, ethical, and sustainability considerations impact design. Products can be designed for lifecycle.
Applied Skills Skills can be developed through play. Skills are developed through practice, effort, and action. Complex tasks require the acquisition of additional skills. Complex tasks require the sequencing of skills. Personal design interests require the evaluation and refinement of skills.
Applied Technologies

Technologies are tools that extend human capabilities.

The choice of technology and tools depends on the task. Complex tasks may require multiple tools and technologies. Complex tasks require different technologies and tools at different stages. Tools and technologies can be adapted for specific purposes.

Curricular Competencies

The Curricular Competencies are organized under three headings:

  • Applied Design
  • Applied Skills
  • Applied Technologies

The Curricular Competencies under Applied Design are further organized under subheadings that reflect general stages of designing and making. For Grades 4 to 12, these are:

  • Understanding context
  • Defining
  • Ideating
  • Prototyping
  • Testing
  • Making
  • Sharing

Elaborations for the Curricular Competencies provide definitions for clarity.

The subheadings for Kindergarten to Grade 3 are simplified in order to be developmentally appropriate; for example, young children do not prototype, test, and make as discernibly separate stages when they are designing and making through exploratory and purposeful play. The three stages of Applied Design that are identified for Kindergarten to Grade 3 encompass all of the stages of designing and making that are identified at higher grade levels, but in a naturalistic and developmentally appropriate way. They are:

  • Ideating
  • Making
  • Sharing

An important feature of the ADST curriculum is that the Curricular Competencies do not change for every grade. They remain the same for Kindergarten to Grade 3, and then there are sets for Grades 4 to 5, 6 to 8, 9 to 10, and 11 to 12. Even then, the changes are quite incremental. This aspect of the curricular design is intended to provide a consistent focus for both students and teachers on the “doing” aspect of the curriculum and to encourage student metacognition.

Students use and develop the core competencies of creative and critical thinking, communication, and the personal and social competencies through the Curricular Competencies of ADST. The chart below gives some examples (but not an exhaustive list).

  K–3 4–5 6–8 9–10 11–12
Thinking

Generate ideas from their experiences and interests

Add to others’ ideas

Generate potential ideas and add to others’ ideas

Screen ideas against the objective and constraints

Generate potential ideas and add to others’ ideas

Screen ideas against criteria and constraints

Take creative risks in generating ideas and add to others’ ideas in ways that enhance them

Critically analyze and prioritize competing factors, including social, ethical, and sustainability considerations, to meet community needs for preferred futures

Take creative risks to identify gaps to explore as design space

Critically analyze how competing social, ethical, and sustainability considerations impact designed solutions to meet global needs for preferred futures
Communication Demonstrate their product, tell the story of designing and making their product Demonstrate their product and describe their process Demonstrate their product and describe their process, using appropriate terminology and providing reasons for their selected solution and modifications Demonstrate their product to potential users, providing a rationale for the selected solution, modifications, and procedures, using appropriate terminology  Share their progress while making to increase feedback, collaboration, and, if applicable, marketing
Personal and Social Explain how their product contributes to the individual, family, community, and/or environment Determine whether their product met the objective and contributes to the individual, family, community, and/or environment Identify the personal, social, and environmental impacts, including unintended negative consequences, of the choices they make about technology use Evaluate the personal, social, and environmental impacts, including unintended negative consequences, of the choices they make about technology use Analyze the role and impact of technologies in societal change, and the personal, social, and environmental impacts, including unintended negative consequences, of their choices of technology use

Content

The ADST curriculum does not specify any Content learning standards for Kindergarten through Grade 5. The intent is for teachers to use the Curricular Competencies from ADST K–5 with grade-level content from other areas of learning to provide students with cross-curricular opportunities to develop foundational mindsets and skills in design thinking and making. For example, students might design and build something based on the Content learning standards in the Science or Social Studies curriculum.

For Grades 6 to 12, the Content is concept-based and includes learning standards for the four existing Applied Skills disciplines (Business Education, Home Economics, Information Technology, and Technology Education) and for new and emerging fields such as Media Arts.

Content learning standards are stated as topics. This creates the space for students to personalize their learning by making choices about what they design and make and the depth and breadth of their learning on a particular topic based on their own interests and passions. The generality of the Content learning standards also facilitates inclusion by allowing the teacher or the student to adjust depth and breadth to match abilities.

Grades 6 to 9 are intended as exploration years. For Grades 6 and 7, this is a new provincial curriculum; for Grades 8 and 9, it is a redesigned curriculum.

The curriculum provides one set of Content options for Grades 6 and 7 that are intended to be short modules that may be offered in rotation. Over the two years, students may be exposed to several of these and perhaps other locally developed options that also use the Curricular Competencies of ADST with locally developed content. This approach provides provincial recognition of the variety and scope of existing locally developed middle years programs and a template for the development of additional local programs.

There are separate sets of Content options for Grade 8 and Grade 9. These may be offered as modular rotations of varying length, as is common for Grade 8 now, or as full-year courses, as is often the case in Grade 9 now. The Content elaborations are non-mandatory curricular supports that suggest possible depth and breadth for teaching concepts.

The Content options for Grade 10, 11, and 12 have been significantly redesigned and reorganized to build on the new program in Kindergarten to Grade 7 and the redesigned program in Grades 8 and 9, to maintain a focus on designing and making, and to reflect developments in the domain. Some courses have been combined, some have been eliminated, some have been renamed, and some have been moved to and from other learning areas. Economics 12 has been moved to the Social Studies learning area; new Computer Science 11 and 12 courses have been developed in the Mathematics learning area; and Media Arts 10–12, with a focus on the application of digital technologies, has been moved to the Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies learning area. These elective courses are intended to offer students opportunities
to continue exploring their interests or to specialize in an area of interest.

Considerations for delivering ADST

At all grade levels

  • The focus on hands-on designing and making, acquisition and honing of skills, and choosing and applying technologies requires a high degree of student choice, although there may still be a place for common activities for specific purposes — for example, to introduce new skills or equipment, to communicate safety procedures, or to explicitly focus on one aspect of the design process
  • The curriculum is inclusive of modern and traditional First Peoples design, skills, and technologies. Students should have opportunities to learn from local First Peoples. This will require an understanding by both students and teachers of appropriation issues and that some knowledge is considered sacred

Kindergarten to Grade 5

  • Students can be given opportunities to develop foundational skills in ADST through exploratory and purposeful play, and through designing and making activities related to the content in other areas of learning. This is already a normal practice in K–5 classrooms and will not require additional time or resources
  • A single set of Curricular Competencies for Kindergarten to Grade 3 provides common language and continuity for the first four years
  • Another set of Curricular Competencies for Grades 4 and 5, with more stages delineated for Applied Design, encourages students to take a more purposeful approach to designing and making

Grades 6 and 7

  • The curriculum is designed to be modular to allow for choice and a variety of delivery models depending on school configuration and student interest
  • The requirement will be that students experience a minimum of three modules of ADST in each of Grades 6 and 7. Schools may choose from among the modules provided in the provincial curriculum or develop new modules that use the Curricular Competencies of ADST 6–7 with locally developed content. Locally developed modules can be offered in addition to, or instead of, the modules in the provincial curriculum
  • Schools that currently have an exploratory rotation may choose to continue with that delivery model for ADST. Schools that do not currently have an exploratory rotation may wish to develop one, or to teach ADST modules in an integrated cross-curricular way with other areas of learning

Grades 8 and 9

  • Schools will be able to accommodate the redesigned ADST curriculum within their current delivery models
  • The curriculum may be offered as modular rotations of varying length, as is common for Grade 8 now, or as full courses, as is often the case in Grade 9 now
  • There are more Content learning standards for Grade 9, as schools often offer these as full courses
  • Schools are expected to offer students the equivalent of a “full-year” program in ADST. This can be made up of one or more modules
  • Schools may choose from among the modules provided in the provincial curriculum or develop new modules that use the Curricular Competencies of ADST 8 or 9 with locally developed content. Locally developed modules can be offered in addition to, or instead of, the modules in the provincial curriculum
  • As the new ADST curriculum has explorations starting in Grade 6, schools may wish to offer students more choice in Grades 8 and 9 than was offered previously

Grades 10 to 12

  • Schools will be able to provide a variety of elective courses in Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies to meet student interests
  • Current Board/Authority Authorized (BAA) courses remain approved. School and districts interested in revising BAA courses or developing new ones are encouraged to use the Curricular Competencies that are common for all Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies courses.  

Introduction

The Physical and Health Education (PHE) curriculum aims to empower students to develop a personalized understanding of what healthy living means to them as individuals and members of society in the 21st century. The PHE curriculum focuses on well-being — the connections between physical, intellectual, mental, and social health. This approach aligns with those of jurisdictions across Canada and throughout the world to promote a deeper and more holistic understanding of overall health and well-being in students.

PHE is designed to develop the knowledge, skills, and understandings that students need for lifelong physical health and mental well-being. The PHE curriculum highlights the interconnections between an individual’s health and his or her well-being, the connections between physical and mental health, the importance of positive interpersonal relations, and how interactions with the community affect overall well-being. As well, the PHE curriculum aims to develop students who have the knowledge and confidence to promote their own health and well-being by maintaining healthy habits. The goal is for students to recognize and change unhealthy behaviours and, at the same time, advocate for the safety, health, and well-being of others.

The rationale and goals of PHE justify combining physical and health education as a means to promote and develop all aspects of well-being. The importance of personal well-being, where students develop healthy habits, is clearly identified as one of the principles of British Columbia’s educational transformation. This establishes PHE as essential to a complete education for BC students.

The redesigned Physical and Health Education curriculum

Flexible teaching and learning

The curriculum promotes flexibility for teachers to create learning experiences that are contextually relevant to their students’ needs, interests, and passions. Teachers use their professional autonomy when considering where (school, community) to teach their students and the amount of time spent on each aspect of the curriculum. The curriculum extends the learning beyond the walls of the school to connect with the lives of students in ways that are authentic and meaningful to them.

Application to personal lifestyle

Students can apply the knowledge, processes, and skills learned to their daily lives while engaging in an exploration of what healthy living means and looks like for them. With the uniqueness of each student in mind, the curriculum facilitates a deep understanding of both physical and health literacy to provide students with the theoretical and practical foundations
to embrace their interests and passions and have a healthy active lifestyle.

Comprehensive

The curriculum unites two curricular areas, physical education and health education, into one concentrated area of learning to provide a comprehensive focus on healthy living for students. Although blended, physical and health education maintain their core attributes and qualities while supporting the development of a deeper understanding of their interconnectedness.

Collaboration and networking opportunities

Given its scope and flexibility, the PHE curriculum offers many opportunities for networking, collaboration, and exploration of potential partnerships between teachers, parents, local health authorities, and others who might help support the learning experiences for students, building stronger connections between the school and community.

Curriculum design

As in all other learning areas, the PHE curriculum is based on the Know-Do-Understand model. The four key features of the curriculum structure are the Big Ideas, Curricular Competencies, Content, and Elaborations. More details about this model can be found at www.curriculum.gov.bc.ca/.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas represent the “understand” component of the curriculum model, the deep understandings that students develop as a result of their learning. Collectively, the Big Ideas progress in sophistication and degree of connections to the lives of students throughout the curriculum. The examples of Big Ideas below illustrate how students’ understanding of well-being and physical activity develop as they progress through the grades.

K 3 6 9
Knowing about our bodies and making healthy choices helps us look after ourselves. Adopting healthy personal practices and safety strategies protects ourselves and others. Healthy choices influence our physical, emotional, and mental well-being. Advocating for the health and well-being of others connects us to our community.
Daily physical activity helps us develop movement skills, physical literacy, and is an important part of healthy living. Movement skills and strategies help us learn how to participate in different types of physical activities and environments. Physical literacy and fitness contributes to our success and enjoyment in physical activity. Daily participation in different types of physical activity influence physical literacy and personal health and fitness goals.

Curricular Competencies

The Curricular Competencies are action-based statements that represent the “do” component of the curriculum model and identify what students will do to demonstrate their learning. Where possible, the Curricular Competencies have been written to promote flexibility and creativity and provide multiple ways for students to demonstrate their learning. The examples of Curricular Competencies below illustrate students’ development of healthy-living goals as they progress through the grades.

K 3 6 9
Identify opportunities to make choices that contribute to health and well-being Explore and describe strategies for pursuing personal healthy-living goals Identify, apply, and reflect on strategies used to pursue personal healthy-living goals Reflect on outcomes of personal healthy-living goals and assess strategies used 

The Communication, Thinking, and Personal and Social Core Competencies underpin the Curricular Competencies. The Personal and Social core competency is strongly relevant to the PHE curriculum. The Core Competencies also support the development of habits of mind that are important to the development of Curricular Competencies; these include:

  • persisting in tasks and goals
  • taking responsible risks
  • thinking interdependently in groups and teams
  • creating, imagining, and innovating new ways to accomplish tasks
  • applying past knowledge and experiences to new situations
  • managing impulses and emotions
  • striving for accuracy and setting high standards

(Adapted from Mindful by Design, by Arthur Costa and Bena Kallick, 2009)

Content

Content is the “know” part of the curriculum model, and includes topics that identify what students will learn about at each grade. Aside from being rich in information, the Content learning standards act as a supporting structure to assist students in demonstrating the Curricular Competencies that will lead them to understanding the Big Ideas.

Elaborations

Throughout the PHE K–9 curriculum, elaborations are added to support the Curricular Competencies and Content learning standards, in the form of examples, definitions, brief explanations, and inquiry questions.

Alternative Delivery Policy

The alternative delivery policy outlines how students and their parents or guardians, in consultation with their local school authority, may choose means other than instruction by a teacher in the regular classroom setting for addressing learning standards in the Physical and Health curriculum.

The policy recognizes the family as the primary educator in the development of children’s attitudes, standards, and values, but still requires that all prescribed learning standards be addressed and assessed in the agreed-upon alternative manner of delivery.

It is important to note the significance of the term “alternative delivery” as it relates to the Alternative Delivery policy. The policy does not permit schools to omit addressing or assessing any of the prescribed learning standards within the physical and health education curriculum. Neither does it allow students to be excused from meeting any learning standards related to health. It is expected that students who arrange for alternative delivery will address the
health-related learning standards and will be able to demonstrate their understanding of
these standards.

Safety considerations

Educators should keep the following safety guidelines in mind and develop procedures to prevent or minimize incidents and injuries. In a safe learning environment, the teacher will:

  • Consider safety as a key consideration in planning and organizing for learning
  • Remain knowledgeable about up-to-date safety information
  • Ensure that students are familiar with safety rules and guidelines
  • Remind students of safety rules and guidelines and observe students to ensure that they follow them
  • Have a plan in case of emergency
  • Ensure that students are aware of procedures for responding to emergencies

By planning safe learning environments and choosing age-appropriate and developmentally appropriate activities, teachers can reduce risk and guard against injury.

Inclusion, equity, and accessibility for all learners

British Columbia’s schools include young people of varied backgrounds, interests, and abilities. The Kindergarten to Grade 12 school system focuses on meeting the needs of all students. When selecting specific topics, activities, and resources to support the implementation of the PHE curriculum, teachers are encouraged to ensure that these choices support inclusion, equity, and accessibility for all students. In particular, teachers should ensure that classroom instruction, assessment, and resources reflect sensitivity to diversity and incorporate positive role portrayals, relevant issues, and themes such as inclusion, respect, and acceptance.

Government policy supports the principles of integration and inclusion of students who have English as a second language and of students with special needs. Some standards may require adaptations to ensure that those with special and/or ELL needs can successfully achieve the prescribed learning standards.

Some students with special needs may require program adaptation or modification to facilitate their achievement of the learning standards in this curriculum.

Adapted programs

An adapted program addresses the learning standards of the prescribed curriculum but provides adaptations to selected learning standards. These adaptations may include alternative formats for resources, instructional strategies, and assessment procedures.

Adaptations may also be made in areas such as skill sequence, pacing, methodology, materials, technology, equipment, services, and setting. Students on adapted programs are assessed using the curriculum standards and can receive full credit.

The following are examples of strategies that may help students with special needs succeed:

  • Adapt the task by simplifying or substituting skills, maintaining the integrity of the intended activity/outcome
  • Adapt the task by changing the complexity
  • Adapt the rules and scoring systems (e.g., allow kicking instead of throwing)
  • Adapt the equipment (e.g., smaller, softer, or lighter equipment) or the setting (indoors instead of outdoors)
  • Provide opportunities for more practice, extra time, or extension of learning
  • Adapt evaluation criteria to accommodate individual student needs
  • Adapt the number of activities the student is expected to complete
  • Increase the amount of learning assistance
  • Adapt the expectation of how a student is to respond to the instruction
  • Adapt the extent to which a student is actively involved in the activity.

Modified programs

A modified program has learning standards that are substantially different from the prescribed curriculum and specifically selected to meet a student’s special needs. A student on a modified program is assessed in relation to the goals and objectives established in the student’s IEP.

The following are examples of strategies that may help students on modified programs:

  • Specify personal support (e.g., by peers or teacher assistants)
  • Set individualized goals that consider prescribed outcomes but are developed to suit the student’s special needs
  • Modify activities by providing parallel ones for students with unique needs

Healthy learning Environments

The learning spaces for PHE are many, including the schoolyard, community centres, fields and trails, and various other outdoor places. Teaching students to appreciate and respect the environment is an integral part of being active in these spaces.

Teachers may look for ways to connect learning in PHE with other provincially prescribed curricula. There are many natural connections, such as:

  • English Language Arts — communicating ideas and viewpoints about healthy living topics
  • Mathematics — calculating heart rate, using daily physical activity time in calculations
  • Social Studies — group processes and teamwork, leadership, and rights and responsibilities at home, at school, and in the community
  • Science — human body systems; appreciating the value of fresh air and outdoor spaces
  • Environmental Science — implications of human impacts on the environment, such as making various food choices, being aware of the impact of using trails, and understanding the health risks associated with sun exposure and air pollution

Whatever the approach used to facilitate connections among these subject areas, it is important to maintain the integrity of each discipline.

For additional support related to fostering a supportive learning environment for PHE, teachers may wish to consult the BC Performance Standards for Social Responsibility.

Introduction

The redesigned Arts Education curriculum strives to galvanize students’ artful habits of mind through engaged arts learning. The curriculum includes a general arts program as well as four core discipline-specific programs — dance, drama, music, and visual arts — that capture the language, activities, and experiences unique to each of those disciplines.

Note that throughout the Arts Education curriculum, “artist” is used as an inclusive term to refer to people who create works in any of the arts disciplines (e.g., dancers, actors, musicians, visual artists). This usage views students as artists, too. Similarly, “works of art” is used to refer to the results of creative processes in any of the four disciplines.

Features of the redesigned Arts Education curriculum

The redesigned Arts Education curriculum promotes the arts as a means of self-expression and understanding of identity, and as a place in which to connect with artists, art processes, artwork, and arts learning in one’s own community.

Flexible teaching and learning

The language and design of the curriculum give teachers the flexibility to teach in any one of four core disciplines. Through the curriculum’s unified design, teachers have the option of creating learning experiences that combine two or more disciplines. The curriculum’s flexibility also accommodates both the range of program structures and school contexts across the province, and the range of student interest in pursuing arts learning in breadth or in depth.

A unified curriculum

The unified K–8 curriculum gives teachers the option of taking integrated instructional approaches, without having to follow a discipline-specific or interdisciplinary preference or priority. For Grade 9, both a unified and a discipline-specific curriculum are provided, offering flexibility and choice for students with emerging and specific interests. The unified curriculum employs language shared by the disciplines rather than melding the disciplines into one; however, each discipline retains its distinguishable qualities and unique learning contexts.

Options for in-depth study

Building on the K–9 curriculum, discipline-specific curricula in Grades 10, 11 and 12 support those students who are committed to a greater depth of study in one or more of the four core disciplines. This curriculum transitions students to lifelong engagement with the arts, whether as a career choice, as a source of knowledge to incorporate into another field of work, or simply for enjoyment in daily life.

Lifelong learning

The curriculum supports the notion that all students, in becoming educated citizens, can develop artistic mindfulness in all aspects of their daily life, both during and beyond their school years.
The curriculum connects skills, processes, and knowledge cultivated in students’ arts learning experiences to opportunities for application.

First Peoples Principles of Learning

Incorporating First Peoples ways of knowing and the First Peoples Principles of Learning,
the curriculum promotes informed and respectful engagement with First Peoples arts, artists,
and worldviews.

Creative and Collaborative Learning

While traditional collaborative performance learning environments (e.g., concert choir, orchestra, theatre, dance company) continue to be supported, the curriculum also allows for innovative and dynamic changes to program offerings as students’ interests change. Connections between grades respect the process-based nature of exploration, inquiry, and creation in the arts while transitioning student artists from experiences in purposeful play to experiences in improvisation and innovation. The curriculum reflects the notion that there are many processes and pathways through which creative potential is realized.

Design of the Arts Education curriculum

As for all areas of learning, the key concepts and competencies of the redesigned Arts Education curriculum are organized around the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. These are captured in Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). More information about the model is available at www.curriculum.gov.bc.ca.

Content

Each discipline’s key concepts, elements, processes, and strategies are included in the Content learning standards in a carefully thought-out progression of what students are expected to know. This progression ensures that students become aware of each element’s presence, use, and capacity over multiple years of study, with growing sophistication and increased depth.

Curricular Competencies

Curricular Competencies describe what students should be able to do with the knowledge they have gained. In every grade, each topic in the Content learning standards can potentially be applied through multiple Curricular Competencies. The Arts Education curriculum at all grade levels supports a progression of study that engages students in discovering their artistic and creative potential through activities in dance, drama, music, and visual art. These learning standards, underpinned by the Arts Education Rationale and Goals, contribute to the development of the educated citizen.

The Curricular Competencies, which are directly linked to the Core Competencies, are structured around artistic habits of mind and engage students, when it is developmentally appropriate to do so, in:

  • Exploring with artistic curiosity
  • Creating with artistic intellect
  • Reasoning through considerations and possibilities
  • Reflecting on choices and imagining opportunities
  • Communicating ideas and perspectives
  • Documenting artistic growth and understandings
  • Connecting with themselves, artists, artworks, and the world
  • Expanding artistic capacity through perseverance

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are the general statements and principles that shape both teaching and learning. They represent what students are expected to understand and take away from the curriculum — the deeper learning. Each Big Idea in the Arts Education curriculum can be explored through learning in any one or more of the four core disciplines — dance, drama, music, and visual art. The Big Ideas are intended to nurture in students an increasingly sophisticated ability to make connections among the artistic habits of mind.

The examples of Big Ideas below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

K

Grade 3

Grade 6

Grade 8

Grade 10

 Big Ideas

People connect to others and share ideas through the arts.

The arts connect our experiences to the experiences of others.

Experiencing art is a means to develop empathy for others’ perspectives and experiences.

Artists often challenge the status quo and open us to new perspectives and experiences.

Active participation in the arts is essential to building culture, expressing and exploring personal identity, and revealing insights into the human experience.

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided for many of the Content and Curricular Competencies learning standards in the Arts Education curriculum. The Elaborations (included as hyperlinks) offer definitions, clarifications, examples, and further information about the topics or competencies at a given grade. Elaborations are not a mandatory part of the curriculum; they have been included simply to provide teachers with additional clarity and support. They may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching Arts Education.

Creative processes

Ideas feed creative processes throughout everyday life. An idea might spark a new project or enhance a project midway through its development. Students experience this in all areas of learning, even though creativity is most often closely associated with learning in the arts.

The revised Arts Education curriculum reimagines the creative process away from a single, sequential process and toward the notion of multiple processes composed of phases of learning and development that generate quality thought and creative thinkers in any learning domain. The four phases of the creative process are described below. While they may not always exist in the order shown here, aspects of each phase will always be part of the whole process.

The Creative Thinking core competency comes alive through this model, which transcends discipline-specific language, cultivating active learning, metacognition, and transferable skills.

The model poses questions that prompt inquiry in the creation of any type of project or demonstration of learning (e.g., essay, presentation, performance, artwork). These questions will challenge students to engage in research and observation activities that build self-awareness and self-efficacy through independent and/or collaborative learning. Suggested questions are contained in an instructional support document entitled “Connecting, Creating, Presenting, and Responding in Arts Education”.

Creative Thinking Process

Explore and Focus

Getting ready to be creative means getting ready to thinklearnand share ideas. Students learn about their own thinking and abilities while they explore their potential and develop a vision for creative success.

Select and Combine

Prior knowledge is an important asset when matching skills, elements, and techniques with a focused project. Many choices will be made during the development of a project, and each will
be based on the impact of the skills, elements, and techniques employed on their own or in combination. Inquiry prompts will guide some decision making and develop mid-point
assessment skills.

Refine and Reflect

A project needs time and the opportunity to be assessed to reveal how it connects to its intention. As part of that assessment, it is important to review previous choices and understand how those choices affect the project. Sometimes this will mean reconsidering decisions, asking for the opinions of others, or repeating a task. Responding to these considerations facilitates confident, polished work.

Reflect and Connect

Bringing a creative project to completion is exciting, but the learning does not stop there. Every creative project, exercise, or experience builds knowledge, improves confidence in decision making, and refines an individual’s approach to creative processes. Reflecting on an experience might spark ideas for a new endeavour that continues to generate new learning. Linking prior learning helps us imagine what more can be achieved.

Important Considerations

Safety Considerations

To ensure a safe learning environment, teachers should ask themselves the following questions before, during, and after an activity has taken place:

  • Are students aware of established rules and procedures for safety (e.g., hearing conservation, health procedures when sharing instruments or costumes, warm-up and cool-down, vocal health and safety, safe use of materials and technologies)?
  • Have the instructions been sequenced progressively to ensure safety?
  • Do students fully understand the instructions?
  • Is the activity suitable to each student’s interest, confidence, and ability?
  • Are students being properly supervised?
  • Are the facilities, equipment, and technologies suitable and in good repair?

Teachers are also encouraged to use professional safety reference guides, the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System, and similar orientation resources to support the safe use of materials and equipment in the learning environment. For examples of safety reference materials, see www.actsafe.ca.

In addition to ensuring physical safety, teachers should consider the emotional safety of students when planning instruction in dance, drama, music, and visual arts. This includes, but is not limited to, being sensitive to individual students; being prepared to respond to unique situations; and employing creative strategies to deal with rivalry, stress, fear of failure, stage fright, and so on. As well, teachers should be mindful of activities that may cause emotional or psychological stress for individual students (e.g., blindfolding, work in closed environments, solo performance, body contact, heterogeneous groupings) and be prepared to offer alternative strategies as necessary.

Working With the Arts Community

The broad nature of the arts as envisioned by the redesigned Arts Education curriculum requires that students learn through experience with a variety of art forms. All aspects of learning in Arts Education can be enriched when arts practitioners from the community are involved. Teachers are encouraged to provide these experiences for their students when possible and appropriate.

When teaching students about culture-specific art forms and contexts, engaging with experts
from the community is particularly important in order to avoid offence or appropriation or misrepresentation of culture. Cultural appropriation includes the use of cultural motifs, themes, “voices,” images, knowledge, stories, songs, or drama without permission or appropriate context,
or in a way that may misrepresent the real experience of the people from whose culture the form
is drawn.

Community artists can also act as mentors, providing feedback and perspective for students’ work.

When working with guest arts practitioners/instructors, teachers might consider the following approach:

  • Familiarize yourself with your school and board/authority policies for involving guest practitioners/instructors in the classroom (e.g., reference checks).
  • Meet with the guest arts practitioner/instructor ahead of time to:
    • Discuss appropriate learning expectations
    • Decide which areas of the curriculum are to be addressed by his or her involvement with the students
    • Plan for the use of age-appropriate material
    • Determine his or her needs during contact time with the students (e.g., space, technology, equipment, materials)
  • Prepare students for the experience (e.g., discuss the expectations for process and etiquette, provide relevant background information).
  • Debrief with students and guests after the sessions or presentations.

The Arts Education curriculum can also be enriched when students have opportunities to work as arts practitioners themselves, creating dance, drama, music, and visual art with or for use by peers, younger students, and the community at large. When students do this and work as choreographers, dramaturges, conductors, or visual arts teachers, encourage them to consider the following questions:

  • What are participants able to reasonably accomplish at this grade level (i.e., in terms of their experience and their physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development)?
  • What safety factors must be kept in mind?
  • Which warm-up and cool-down activities need to be incorporated?
  • Is the work appropriate for a school setting?
  • What is the best way to work through and sequence the various parts of the work?
  • What are the criteria for success?

Many community and web resources can be used for broadening the range of learning opportunities in the Arts Education curriculum. Key among these are:

  • Professional studios, performance groups, galleries, and associations
  • High school, college, and university arts departments
  • School and public libraries
  • Arts teachers’ associations
  • Community, provincial, and national arts councils
  • Arts-regulating and policy-making authorities
  • First Peoples artists and performance groups
  • Cultural associations, artists, and performance groups
  • Continuing education programs
  • Community and recreation centres
  • Arts periodicals and publications
  • Local radio and television stations (for access to audio-visual equipment)
  • Arts broadcasting
  • Arts and cultural festivals
  • Advocacy organizations

Introduction

The Career Education curriculum supports students in the process of becoming successful, educated citizens by providing them with opportunities to explore a variety of careers and options for their future. Career Education helps students to discover a bridge between classroom learning and workplace and post-secondary realities, and is intended to make their learning meaningful and relevant.
 
Career Education K–12 is a redesigned provincial curriculum that focuses solely on the competencies and content required for career development. In the past, Career Education was part of the Health and Career Education (HACE) K–9, Planning 10, and Graduation Transitions programs. The review of all curricular areas has resulted in the health curriculum being combined with physical education to create a new, holistic Physical and Health Education curriculum. The career components of Health and Career Education, Planning 10, and Graduation Transitions have been re-envisioned as the Career Education K–12 curriculum.
 
Career Education is a process that recognizes three major phases of career development—Foundation and Awareness, Exploration, and Experience and Application. The connection between grade levels and phases is one of emphasis—many high school students will still need to focus on awareness or exploration for example. Students will transition through each phase based on their personal development and community context. Career Education helps students discover the bridge between classroom learning and post-graduation life, and is intended to make their learning meaningful and relevant to their next steps after school.

K–5 Foundation and Awareness

In K–5, students develop an awareness of their personal interests and strengths, and the roles and responsibilities of family, school, and community. 

Grades 6–9: Exploration

In Grades 6–9, students explore concepts such as identity, leadership, personal planning, and transferable skills. As students build on the foundation developed from their experiences in K–5, they begin to explore in greater depth their skills and passions, and begin to determine possible routes to their goals. 

Grades 10–12: Experience and Application

As students move through Grades 10–12, they further refine their understanding of the links between personal development and their career decisions. They consider regional and global trends to reflect on career possibilities, refine their understanding of safety requirements associated with occupational areas and related technologies, and further develop and refine their understanding of career possibilities through planning, practice, and application of competencies and knowledge.
 
Students may explore and experience various career options before they discover the most appropriate and meaningful direction for them. For some students, a successful transition will involve a direct path to further education, while for others it will involve a direct path to the world of work. During these years, students develop their transition plans, which include workplace experience and a final capstone project.

Design of the Career Education curriculum

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas represent what students are expected to understand as a result of their learning — the “Understand” component of BC’s learning model. Collectively, the Big Ideas progress in both sophistication and degree of connection to the lives of students throughout the curriculum. The examples below show how the Big Ideas about personal development and connections to community advance as students progress through the curriculum.
 
K-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-12
Learning is a lifelong enterprise. Exploring our strengths and abilities can help us identify our goals. New experiences, both within and outside of school, expand our career skill set and options. Reflecting on our preferences and skills helps us identify the steps we need to take to achieve our career goals. Successful career and education paths require planning, evaluating, and adapting.
Strong communities are the result of being connected to family and community and working together toward common goals. Family and community relationships can be a source of support and guidance when solving problems and making decisions. Our attitudes toward careers are influenced by our view of ourselves as well as by our friends, family, and community. The value of work in our lives, communities, and society can be viewed from diverse perspectives. A network of family, friends, and community members can support and broaden our career awareness and options.

Curricular Competencies

Curricular Competencies are action-based statements that reflect the “Do” component of the curriculum model and identify what students will do to demonstrate their learning. The Curricular Competencies have been written to promote as much flexibility and creativity as possible, enabling students to explore and find multiple ways to demonstrate their learning.

The Curricular Competencies connect to the Core Competencies—Communication, Thinking, and Personal and Social. Identified and developed through provincial consultation, the Core Competencies are the intellectual, personal, social, and emotional skills that will contribute to lifelong learning. The curricular competencies in the Career Education curriculum focus particularly on the Personal and Social Competencies.
 
The Curricular Competencies are designed to address four themes that run through the curriculum:
  • self-awareness
  • working with others (collaboration and communication)
  • career knowledge and awareness
  • career planning

Self-awareness

K-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-12
Identify and appreciate their personal attributes, skills, interests, and accomplishments Identify and appreciate their personal attributes, skills, interests, and accomplishments and their growth over time Recognize their personal preferences, skills, strengths, and abilities and connect them to possible career choices  Use self-assessment and reflection to develop awareness of their strengths, preferences, and skills Create a personal integrated post-graduation plan articulating choices related to: Career, Education, Finances, and Health and well-being

Working with others

K-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-12
Share ideas, information, personal feelings, and knowledge with others Recognize the intersection of their personal and public digital identities and the potential for both positive and negative consequences Question self and others about how their personal public identity can have both positive and negative consequences Recognize the impact of personal public identity in the world of work

Re-assess and refine personal digital presence considering current and future impacts

Career knowledge and awareness

K-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-12
Recognize the importance of learning in their lives and future careers Demonstrate respect for differences in the classroom. Appreciate the importance of respect, inclusivity, and other positive behaviours in diverse, collaborative learning, and work environments Recognize and explore diverse perspectives on how work contributes to our community and society

Demonstrate professionalism and respect for all peoples and an on-going openness to learn

Career planning

K-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-12
Set and achieve realistic learning goals for themselves Set realistic short- and longer-term learning goals, define a path, and monitor progress Set realistic short- and longer-term learning goals, define a path, and monitor progress Recognize the influence of curriculum choices and co-curricular activities on career paths

Design, assemble and present a culminating project to an audience, that demonstrates personal learning and achievement (in and out-of-school), growth in the core competencies, and reflection on the post-graduation plan

Content

The Content learning standards reflect the “Know” component of the learning model and are stated as topics. The Content acts as both a supporting structure intended to assist students in demonstrating the Curricular Competencies and a foundational element leading students to the Big Ideas.

The content of the Career Education curriculum is organized under two headings in K-5: Personal Development and Connections to Community. Starting in Grade 6, a third heading is added to focus on the development of graduation plans: Life and Career Plan. 

Important Considerations

Grades 10-12

The Career Life Education and Career Life Connections courses are the final phase of career and life learning and focus on the experiential and applied learning that support students in determining their next steps, post-graduation. Through numerous learning experiences within and outside the classroom, students are expected to develop an integrated post-graduation plan that is connected to a capstone or culminating project, which demonstrates their learning in an area of personal interest. Ideally, the capstone or culminating project will be linked to an area that students are passionate about and anticipate they will be pursuing further education and learning and/or a career in.

Integrated Plan for Post-Graduation

An integrated plan for post-graduation is a personal plan that articulates student choices related to:

  • Career: possible pathways and directions based on student’s passions, skillset, contribution to society, employment and where these intersect
  • Education: formal (e.g., school based), informal (e.g., life learning), non-formal (e.g., workshops), and on-the-job training (e.g., apprenticeship, work experiences)
  • Finances: determining a budget and financing options for post-graduation plans
  • Health and well-being: choices that support a healthy lifestyle that include self-care, balance, stress management, maintaining healthy relationships, resilience for transitions, coping mechanisms

Students will create their plans drawing from other areas of learning and courses, educational and/or life experiences, and through information gathering and research. The articulation of this plan begins in Career Life Education where students are required to ‘create an initial career and education plan, considering financial implications’, and the refinement of the plan happens in Career Life Connections.  The integrated post-graduation plan is a key component linked to the culminating project. See Capstone Project, for the description and criteria for the capstone project. 

When the 10-12 Career Education curricula are revised, based on feedback, and finalized, it is intended that samples of Capstone Projects, which are created by teachers, will be added to highlight the personalized opportunities present within these courses and the choice and flexibility for course delivery.

Delivery of Grade 10-12 Career Education Courses

The new Career Education courses for grades 10-12 Career Life Education and Career Life Connections—are intended to provide a personalized, flexible approach to career and life learning as students determine their next steps, post-graduation. Delivery models for these courses should enable flexibility and choice and match the school, students, and context.

As Career Life Education provides the foundation for Career Life Connections, school districts and schools should determine a mechanism for the integration of learning between courses during the graduation years.

It is highly recommended that these courses include classroom instruction, mentoring, community and work experience, and independent learning and the balance of these components should be determined at a local level. The proposal is that both courses are to be graded (no longer ‘requirement met’ but resulting in a letter grade).

Career Education learning should connect to learning in other curricular areas and interdisciplinary connections should be encouraged for students. Likewise, teachers should look for opportunities to work collaboratively with colleagues and with community in interdisciplinary ways. Whole school involvement is encouraged and professional development focused on career education may be helpful for teachers in supporting their students.

The personal, integrated post-graduation plan and capstone or culminating project will require on-going support for students and this should include multiple teachers, mentors, community and family participation. As reflection is a key learning strategy for students, this competency will require nurturing over time. The culminating project should be presented to an audience to allow students to share and celebrate their learning within their community.

Context based examples

The revision of Career Education courses at the secondary level, including Career Life Education and Career Life Connections, is one focused on flexibility and choice that is supportive of local contexts. The new courses are focused on providing students with opportunities to consider their next steps, post-graduation, in meaningful ways. To best support this, consideration of the delivery of Career Education courses, the roles of students, teachers, mentors, schools and communities, and collaboration opportunities must be well thought out.

Aboriginal perspectives

Aboriginal perspectives are embedded in all grades in the Career Education curriculum to build a greater understanding of First Peoples Principles of Learning. The Big Ideas, Curricular Competencies, and Content support exploration of one’s identity, the roles and responsibilities of the community, and the value of well-being of the self, the family, and the community.

Focus on problem-solving and decision-making

Throughout the Career Education curriculum, students explore the relationships between personal choices and decisions, examine how family and community can support problem-solving and decision-making, and investigate career options so they can make informed decisions.

Safety

Safety is an important consideration at home, at school, in daily life, and in the workplace. In the BC Education system, safety is addressed at all levels. The School Act, under “Safe and Caring School Communities,” speaks to policies, procedures, and practices that promote school safety.  Beyond the provincial policies, safety is addressed specifically at various levels and in various areas of learning within the BC provincial curriculum.

  • In the BC K–9 curriculum, learning standards at several grade levels in Physical and Health Education and Science support safety education.
  • The renewed Career Education K–12 curriculum includes safety in curricular competencies, content, and big ideas at various levels.
  • Courses for Grades 10–12 developed to educate students in a specific occupations will include safety standards specific to that area of learning.

Introduction

Please note that the following information will be available in English soon.

Le nouveau  programme d’études de Français langue seconde – immersion décrit ce que l’élève doit savoir, comprendre et faire de la maternelle à la 12e année. Ce programme a comme objectif de placer l’élève dans des situations d’apprentissage en contexte francophone. Ces situations lui permettent d’acquérir les compétences, connaissances et stratégies nécessaires pour communiquer et interagir en français de manière efficace et avec confiance.

Le programme d’études de Français langue seconde – immersion a pour but d’amener chaque élève à devenir un citoyen éduqué capable de questionner le monde qui l’entoure. À travers l’acquisition de compétences disciplinaires, l’élève est amené à développer sa pensée critique et créative, à collaborer, à formuler des hypothèses et à résoudre des problèmes. Dans ce programme, la langue française est considérée comme un outil de réflexion et de communication permettant à l’élève de contribuer à la société dans laquelle il évolue.

Les caractéristiques du nouveau programme d’études de Français langue seconde – immersion

Un cadre conceptuel

Au travers de ce cadre, l’élève est amené à réfléchir à des concepts qui servent de véhicules à l’exploration de questions et d’idées. Le cadre conceptuel invite l’élève à développer ses capacités de réflexion et à acquérir une compréhension approfondie de la matière.

La prescription de genres littéraires

Chaque élève a l’occasion d’étudier une variété de genres de la littérature francophone canadienne et mondiale tout au long de son parcours scolaire. De cette façon, l’élève est amené à explorer et à apprécier la diversité et la richesse de la littérature francophone canadienne et mondiale. 

L’apprentissage personnalisé

Ce nouveau programme d’études met l’accent sur le processus d’apprentissage. Un intérêt particulier est accordé à l’élève, c’est-à-dire à ses besoins, à ses motivations et à son rythme d’apprentissage. Un contenu moins détaillé laisse à l’enseignant et à l’élève  l’occasion d’explorer des sujets qui les passionnent ou des sujets pertinents en fonction de leur contexte. 

Les principes d’apprentissage autochtone

Ce programme tient compte des principes d’apprentissage et des perspectives des peuples autochtones afin d’encourager l’élève à prendre conscience de ses propres points de vue et de ceux des autres. L’élève approfondit ses connaissances de la langue française en établissant, au travers d’un processus de réflexion, des liens explicites entre la langue et les cultures francophones et autochtones. 

Un continuum langagier

Les outils grammaticaux sont présentés selon une progression qui prend en considération les types de textes à l’étude et les différentes compétences disciplinaires qui y sont liées. Ce continuum grammatical permet à l’élève de développer des compétences langagières en contexte afin d’améliorer ses communications et sa compréhension des mécanismes de la langue.

L’apprentissage actif

Tout comme le programme précédent, ce nouveau programme est basé sur le principe que tout élève doit participer activement à son apprentissage. L’élève est encouragé à interagir, à interpréter le sens des messages et à mettre en œuvre des stratégies de communication en français, à l’oral comme à l’écrit. 

La dimension culturelle

La culture et le développement de l’identité de l’élève restent au cœur du programme d’immersion. Le programme d’études de Français langue seconde – immersion offre à l’élève l’occasion d’explorer et de mieux comprendre les réalités de sa culture et de celles du monde francophone. Par le biais du français, l’élève construit son identité langagière, culturelle et personnelle qui va se renforcer au fil de son apprentissage. 

La conception du nouveau programme d’études de Français langue seconde – immersion

Le nouveau  programme d’études de Français langue seconde – immersion suit le même format que tout autre domaine d’apprentissage en s’inspirant du modèle Savoir, Comprendre, Faire (SCF). L’élève apprend au travers du contenu (Savoir), des compétences disciplinaires (Faire) et des grandes idées (Comprendre). De plus amples informations à propos de ce modèle sont disponibles sur le site www.curriculum.gov.bc.ca.

Le contenu

Le contenu représente la composante du « Savoir » du modèle. Cette composante comprend les informations essentielles que l’élève devrait connaître après son apprentissage selon le niveau scolaire, afin de développer les compétences disciplinaires. À chaque niveau, tout concept du contenu peut être appliqué au travers de multiples compétences disciplinaires qui visent à faciliter la compréhension des grandes idées. 

Les compétences disciplinaires

Les compétences disciplinaires reflètent ce que l’élève devrait être capable de « Faire » selon le niveau scolaire et le domaine d’apprentissage. L’élève développe sa compétence globale en mettant en application les compétences disciplinaires (habiletés, processus et habitudes intellectuelles) dans divers contextes. Les compétences disciplinaires sont liées aux compétences essentielles – la compétence de communication, la compétence de réflexion et la compétence personnelle et sociale.

L’objectif de ce programme d’études est de placer l’élève dans des situations d’apprentissage qui lui permettront d’acquérir les compétences, connaissances et stratégies nécessaires pour communiquer et interagir en français de manière efficace et avec confiance. L’élève développe des compétences disciplinaires qui visent à « explorer et réfléchir » ainsi que de « créer et communiquer » afin de comprendre le lien entre la langue et la culture. 

  2e 3e 4e 5e
Compétences disciplinaires Identifier les thèmes et les mots clés présents dans un texte pour en comprendre le message. Identifier l’idée principale d’un texte. Identifier l’idée principale et les détails d’un texte. Distinguer les idées secondaires des idées principales d’un texte.

Les grandes idées

Les grandes idées représentent les notions fondamentales que l’élève devrait « Comprendre ». L’élève découvre ou saisit les grandes idées grâce à l’aspect « Faire » du domaine d’apprentissage en associant le contenu aux compétences disciplinaires pour en arriver à une compréhension conceptuelle. 

L’exemple ci-dessous montre la manière dont les grandes idées se complexifient d’année en année.

  2e 3e 4e 5e 6e
Grandes idées La sensibilisation à d’autres cultures aide à la découverte de la sienne et contribue à sa construction identitaire. Les textes présentent des éléments culturels qui permettent d’entrevoir d’autres points de vue. Les éléments culturels dans les textes reflètent la diversité des cultures au sein de la société. L’œuvre de fiction présente des éléments socioculturels et historiques adaptés par l’auteur. La découverte d’autres cultures amène à s’interroger sur ses propres mœurs et valeurs.

Les élaborations

Les élaborations ont été créées pour la plupart des compétences disciplinaires et du contenu et sont accessibles par hyperlien. Elles contiennent des exemples, des clarifications, des définitions ou toute autre information liée aux composantes du programme d’études à chaque niveau scolaire. Les élaborations servent de guide à l’enseignement et à l’apprentissage.

Des considérations importantes

La dimension culturelle

La sensibilisation à la langue française et aux cultures francophones et leur valorisation jouent un rôle important dans l’enseignement en immersion. L’élève prendra conscience des dimensions sociolinguistiques dans le cadre du programme d’études de Français langue seconde – immersion, afin d’être capable d’évoluer dans différentes situations socioculturelles.

L’interaction avec une communauté francophone

L’interaction avec des membres des communautés francophones aide l’élève à acquérir une ouverture d’esprit à l’interculturalité. L’interaction peut prendre diverses formes dans différents contextes.

Par exemple : 

  • les sorties (pièces de théâtre, films, festivals, restaurants, concerts, etc.)
  • les échanges ou les voyages en milieu francophone
  • l’utilisation de la technologie (médias, médias sociaux, etc.)
  • l’interaction en ligne avec une communauté francophone (blogues, forums, etc.)

Ces expériences offrent des possibilités d’interactions authentiques, variées et intéressantes, à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur de la communauté dans laquelle l’élève évolue.

Please note that the following information will be available in French soon.

Introduction

Science and scientific literacy play a key role in educating citizens of today for the world tomorrow. Critical to succeeding in this endeavour are the core competencies that provide students with the ability to think critically, solve problems, and make ethical decisions; to communicate their questions, express opinions, and challenge ideas in a scientifically literate way; and to exercise an awareness of their role as an ecologically literate citizenry, engaged and competent in meeting the responsibilities of caring for living things and the planet.

Features of the Science curriculum

  • With a renewed focus on inquiry, the Science curriculum provides students with opportunities to ask questions, identify their beliefs and opinions, consider a range of views, work collaboratively, and ultimately make informed conclusions that lead to responsible choices for themselves, their families, and their communities.
  • The story of science told in the curriculum is a journey that takes the students from becoming aware of their immediate environment to considering the impact of local actions and decisions on a global scale.
  • Conceptual learning for all science students is supported, and both traditional ecological knowledge and First Peoples perspectives are embedded in the curriculum.

Design of the Science curriculum

The redesigned Science curriculum has the same format as all other areas of learning. Four curriculum elements — the Big Ideas, Curricular Competencies, Content, and Elaborations — link the knowing, doing, and understanding of science learning. By connecting science knowledge with a hands-on approach to doing science, the curriculum elements support learning in biology, chemistry, physics, and Earth/space science, leading to a deep understanding of science concepts.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas in the Science curriculum tell the story of science through the concepts featured. For each area of science — biology, chemistry, physics, Earth/space science — important concepts are introduced in Kindergarten and expanded in subsequent grades, resulting in a deep understanding of the story of science. In chemistry, for example, the progression of Big Ideas is designed to provide students with a deep understanding of matter, beginning with human interactions with matter through familiar materials and building to the kinetic molecular theory
and the theory of the atom.

  K 3 6 8 10
Story of Science: Chemistry Humans interact with matter every day through familiar materials.

All matter is made of particles.

Everyday materials are often mixtures. The behaviour of matter can be explained by the kinetic molecular theory and the atomic theory. The behaviour of matter can be explained by the kinetic molecular theory and the atomic theory.

Elaborations (included as hyperlinks) for the Big Ideas are intended to support scientific inquiry by providing sample questions. The questions offer suggested entry points through which students can begin to investigate concepts related to each Big Idea.

Curricular Competencies

The Core Competencies — Thinking, Communication, and Personal and Social — are embedded in the Curricular Competencies. The Curricular Competencies introduced in Kindergarten are again expanded in a developmental continuum focused on the “doing” of science learning. 

 

  K 3 6 10
Thinking

Demonstrate curiosity and a sense of wonder about the world

Demonstrate curiosity about the natural world

Demonstrate a sustained curiosity about a scientific topic or problem of personal interest

Demonstrate a sustained intellectual curiosity about a scientific topic or problem of personal interest 

Communication

Share observations and ideas orally

Represent and communicate ideas and findings in a variety of ways, such as diagrams and simple reports, using digital technologies as appropriate

Communicate ideas, explanations, and processes in a variety of ways

Communicate scientific ideas, information, and perhaps a suggested course of action, for a specific purpose and audience, constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions, and representations
Personal and Social Contribute to care for self, family, classroom, and school through individual approaches Contribute to care for self, others, school, and neighbourhood through individual or collaborative approaches Contribute to care for self, others, and community through individual or collaborative approaches Contribute to care for self, others, community, and world through individual or collaborative approaches

Elaborations for the Curricular Competencies are intended to support scientific inquiry and development of a deeper understanding of concepts such as place (i.e., any environment, locality, or context that people interact with to learn, create memory, reflect on history, connect to culture, and establish identity), by providing sample questions and concept-based examples. The Elaborations offer suggested entry points through which students can begin to investigate concepts related to the Curricular Competencies.

Content

The Content is concept-based and includes learning standards for biology (including ecology), chemistry, physics, and Earth/space science at the K–10 level. At Grades 11–12, the areas of science expand to include anatomy and physiology, environmental science, and geology. As the Content for all grades is conceptual by design, cross-cutting concepts that are relevant in science can be applied across numerous areas of learning and further expand science learning. Cross-cutting concepts in the Science curriculum include:

  • Cause and effect
  • Change
  • Cycles
  • Evolution
  • Form and function
  • Interactions
  • Matter and energy
  • Order
  • Patterns
  • Systems

The Content Elaborations are considered non-mandatory curricular supports that suggest the intended breadth and depth for teaching concepts. The Elaborations may provide definitions of concepts, examples of ways to explore a concept, or additional information that teachers may find useful in clarifying the intent of the concept-based learning standard.

Important Considerations

Inquiry in Science

The redesigned Science curriculum is rooted in inquiry. Inquiry is the tool with which students gain content knowledge, learn the habits of mind and skills and processes associated with the doing of science, develop a deeper understanding of science concepts through big ideas, and acquire core competencies as scientifically educated citizens. Inquiry has been emphasized in the redesigned curriculum, with learning standards focused on “doing,” Curricular Competencies structured within an inquiry process model, and numerous Elaborations providing sample questions for students to explore.

Scientific habits of mind

Scientists and students alike use scientific habits of mind as they delve into the system of inquiry that we know as science. Scientific habits of mind are important for equipping students with the thinking skills necessary for engaging in the pursuit of discovery and innovation, as well as for understanding science. In addition, when students approach learning with scientific habits of mind, science learning is exciting and includes a knowledge base that is constantly refined and expanded and is relevant to the modern world. Developing scientific habits of mind provides students with the thinking skills to effectively participate in society as scientifically educated citizens and invites them to explore further studies in science.

Scientific habits of mind include:

  • A sustained intellectual curiosity — the desire to continually learn more about something of interest
  • An openness to new ideas and consideration of alternatives — an attitude of wonder and interest in new concepts, coupled with a willingness to rethink notions and form new opinions based on evidence
  • An appreciation of evidence — an understanding of what proves or disproves a scientific theory
  • An awareness of assumptions and a questioning of givens — mindful questioning about something accepted as true without evidence
  • A healthy, informed skepticism — challenging the truth of a claim by requiring additional evidence
  • A desire to seek patterns, connections, and understanding — the ability to make connections in information and interpret meaning from the patterns
  • A consideration of social, ethical, and environmental implications — a willingness to think about personal, societal, moral, and environmental impacts of actions

The environment and science learning

Educated citizens understand the importance of learning about the environment. Environmental education is part of the Personal and Social Core Competency, because it is a responsibility that connects with every area of learning. While the Science curriculum enables a variety of instructional approaches, it was designed with a place-based approach in mind. A place-based approach is an evolving, cross-curricular instructional approach that emphasizes the value of learning directly from one’s own community or region. Place-based learning:1

  • Emphasizes hands-on, real-world learning experiences
  • Helps students develop ties to their community
  • Enhances students’ appreciation for the natural world
  • Develops an active, engaged, educated citizenry 

As students experience and interpret their local environment, they develop their sense of place. Place is any environment, locality, or context with which people interact to learn, create memory, reflect on history, connect with culture, and establish identity. The connection between people and place is foundational to First Peoples perspectives of the world.

Scientifically educated citizens are place-conscious, see themselves as part of the planet rather than ruler of the planet, stay informed about scientific developments, and are aware of the impact of science on the planet and its systems. The redesigned Science curriculum features reflection questions about place, to develop environmental awareness and a deep understanding of ecological concepts.

Considerations for classroom action

There are several considerations for classroom action in the redesigned Science curriculum:

  • The concept-based, competency-driven curriculum enables a variety of approaches (e.g., place-based, inquiry-based, interdisciplinary, STEM, STEAM) for teachers to use to support student learning.
  • The curriculum places significant value on place-based perspectives in British Columbia, acknowledging the diversity of localities in the province and inviting students to experience their local environment.
  • Connected to place, the curriculum is inclusive of modern and traditional First Peoples perspectives in science and supports traditional ecological knowledge and understanding of local ecosystems.
  • While inquiry is at the heart of science learning, inquiry-based learning is not always an efficient way to learn certain important things in science (e.g., terminology, safety procedures, how to use equipment). However, an inquiry might create the need and motivation to learn these skills and concepts.
  • In supporting hands-on science experiences, student safety remains a key consideration. Refer to the Science Safety Manual for further support in this area.

 

1 “Emphasizing hands-on, real-world learning experiences, this approach to education increases academic achievement, helps students develop stronger ties to their community, enhances students’ appreciation for the natural world, and creates a heightened commitment to serving as active contributing citizens. Community vitality and environmental quality are improved through the active engagement of local citizens, community organizations, and environmental resources in the life of the school.” (David Sobel, 2004, Place-Based Education: Connecting Classrooms and Communities, p. 7)

Introduction

The primary goal of Social Studies education is to give students the knowledge, skills, and competencies to be active, informed citizens who are able to think critically, understand and explain the perspectives of others, make judgments, and communicate ideas effectively.

Through their study of historical events, students will gain an understanding of the people, places, issues, and events that have shaped the world they live in. By studying some of the many different cultures and ways of life that exist and have existed throughout the world, students will develop both a deeper understanding of the differences between peoples and an appreciation of the aspects of human experience shared across time and space.

Social Studies provides students with an understanding of their place in the world and the connections between the human and natural environment. The increasing cultural and economic interconnections between societies and the growing awareness of the importance of environmental sustainability make geographic understandings a crucial part of informed citizenship.

Social Studies also develops knowledge and understandings of the economy, the interdependence of economies, and how economic decisions can have consequences at individual, local, national, and international levels.

The Social Studies curriculum also provides opportunities for students to learn about Canadian society, our democratic institutions, and the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizens.
It explores how students can have an impact on the decisions made in their society and advocate for causes important to them. Students will also understand the importance of being open to new ideas and civil to those with whom they disagree in creating a healthy and vibrant democracy.

The renewed Social Studies curriculum

Reduction in required content

The learning standards in the curriculum are less detailed and prescriptive than past curricula and allow teachers and students to go in directions of particular interest or local relevance. The goal of this more open curriculum is to allow teachers to spend more time delving deeper into fewer key topics and focus less on simply rushing through a long list of factual details in an attempt to cover all of the required topics.

Greater emphasis on key disciplinary thinking skills

The reduction in the number of content learning standards places greater emphasis on acquiring and developing key disciplinary thinking skills. These skills are built around six major historical and geographical thinking concepts: significance, evidence, continuity and change, cause and consequence, perspective, and ethical judgment. The focus on disciplinary thinking means that students will be involved in developing their own understanding of important concepts, rather than simply receiving that knowledge from textbooks, the teacher, or other authoritative sources.

First Peoples perspectives

In order to build greater understanding of First Peoples history and culture, the study of these important topics and perspectives is embedded throughout all grades. The Curricular Competencies also ensure that students consider topics from multiple perspectives and are constantly able to question the justification and evidence for interpretations of events and issues.

Focus on inquiry

Throughout the Social Studies curriculum, students examine big, open-ended questions so they can make informed decisions. Making an informed decision about an issue requires an understanding of the key historical, geographical, political, economic, and societal factors involved, and how these different factors relate to and interact with each other. Students build these deeper understandings through investigations into interesting, open-ended questions, debating and discussing historical and contemporary issues, and developing and supporting their own hypotheses, solutions, and conclusions.

Curriculum design

As in all other learning areas, the Social Studies curriculum is based on a Know-Do-Understand model. There are four key features of the curriculum structure: Big Ideas, Curricular Competencies, Content, and Elaborations. More details about this model can be found on the curriculum website at https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/curriculum/overview.

Big Ideas

Big Ideas represent the “understanding” component of the curriculum model, the deep understandings that students develop as a result of their learning. The Big Ideas are understood through activities that examine Content topics through the use of key disciplinary skills found in the Curricular Competencies.

Collectively, the Big Ideas progress in sophistication and degree of connection to the lives of students throughout the curriculum. The examples below illustrate how the Big Ideas advance in depth as students progress through the curriculum.


 

K

3

6

9

Big Ideas

Our communities are diverse and made of individuals who have a lot in common.

People from diverse cultures and societies share some common experiences and aspects of life.

Economic self-interest can be a significant cause of conflict among peoples and governments.

Disparities in power alter the balance of relationships between individuals and between societies.

Curricular Competencies

These action-based statements represent the “do” section of the curriculum model and identify what students will do to demonstrate their learning. The Curricular Competencies have been written to promote as much flexibility and creativity as possible to enable students to explore and find multiple ways to demonstrate their learning.

The Curricular Competencies have been linked with the Core Competencies — Communication, Thinking, and Personal and Social Awareness. Identified and developed through provincial consultation, the Core Competencies represent a collection of intellectual, personal, and social and emotional skills that contribute to lifelong learning and help develop habits of mind such as:

  • persisting in tasks and goals
  • taking responsible risks
  • thinking interdependently in groups and teams
  • creating, imagining, and innovating new ways to accomplish tasks
  • applying past knowledge and experiences to new situations
  • managing impulses and emotions
  • striving for accuracy and setting high standards

(Adapted from Mindful by Design, by Arthur Costa and Bena Kallick, 2009)

Content

Content represents the “know” part of the curriculum model, and includes concepts or topics that identify what students will learn about at each grade level. In addition to being rich in information, the Content learning standards act as a supporting structure to assist students in their efforts to demonstrate the Curricular Competencies and to help lead students to the Big Ideas.

Elaborations

Throughout the Social Studies K–9 curriculum, most of the Content and Curricular Competencies have Elaborations that take the form of key skills, key questions, and sample topics. Elaborations provide additional information and support for both teachers and students and can serve as potential places to begin teaching and learning. The Elaborations can be found by mousing over highlighted word(s).

Establishing a positive classroom climate

Teachers are responsible for establishing and promoting a classroom climate in which students feel comfortable learning about and discussing Social Studies topics. The following guidelines may help educators establish and promote a positive classroom climate:

•    Allow students sufficient time and opportunities to become comfortable with each other before engaging in group discussion. It is important that the classroom climate encourage students to relate to one another in positive, respectful, and supportive ways. Be prepared to facilitate any potentially controversial discussions.

•    Establish clear ground rules for class discussions that demonstrate respect for privacy, diversity, and the expression of differing viewpoints.

•    Activities and discussion related to some of the topics in Social Studies may evoke an emotional response from individual students. Inform an administrator or counsellor when any concern arises, and ensure that students know where to go for help and support.

Inclusion, equity, and accessibility for all learners

British Columbia’s schools include young people of varied backgrounds, interests, and abilities. The Kindergarten to Grade 12 school system is committed to meeting the needs of all students. When selecting specific topics, activities, and resources to support the implementation of Social Studies, teachers are encouraged to ensure that these choices support inclusion, equity, and accessibility for all students. In particular, teachers should ensure that classroom instruction, assessment, and resources reflect sensitivity to diversity and incorporate positive role portrayals, relevant issues, and themes such as inclusion, respect, and acceptance.

Working with First Peoples communities

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of First Peoples in BC are reflected in all provincial curricula. To address these topics in the classroom in a way that is accurate and that respectfully reflects First Peoples Principles of teaching and learning, teachers are strongly encouraged to seek the advice and support of local First Peoples communities. As First Peoples communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol for gaining support for integration of local knowledge and expertise.

To begin discussion of possible instructional and assessment activities, teachers should first contact First Peoples education co-ordinators, teachers, support workers, and counsellors in their district who will be able to facilitate the identification of local resources and contacts such as Elders, chiefs, tribal or band councils, First Peoples cultural centres, friendship centres, and Métis or Inuit organizations.

 

Introduction

Le programme d’études de Français langue première a pour objectif d’amener chaque élève à devenir un citoyen éduqué et informé, pouvant exercer une influence positive et efficace sur la société dans laquelle il évolue.

La découverte et l’exploration de la littérature permettront à l’élève d’approfondir sa culture générale et d’apprendre à relativiser. En développant sa curiosité et sa créativité, il pourra faire preuve d’ouverture et de compréhension face à la différence.

Ce nouveau programme présente ce que les étudiants sont censés connaitre, comprendre et être capable de faire. L’étudiant est ici au centre de l’enseignement  avec plus de flexibilité accordée aux modes personnels d’apprentissage. L’accent est ainsi porté sur la littératie, la pensée critique et l’identité culturelle.

Les caractéristiques du nouveau programme d’études de Français langue première

Une ouverture littéraire

Le programme d’études de français langue première encourage l’utilisation d’une variété de types et de genres de textes dès la troisième année. Le mot texte désigne ici tout support oral, écrit ou visuel.  En présence d’un vaste répertoire de textes, l’enseignant peut véhiculer les caractéristiques de chacun d’entre eux. Des exemples de textes comprennent le texte informatif, la lettre, le conte, le texte injonctif, le roman jeunesse, le discours, la légende, la biographie, l’autobiographie, la bande dessinée, la poésie, la nouvelle, le mythe, la dissertation, le texte argumentatif, la fable et la pièce de théâtre.

La dimension culturelle

Ce programme encourage à la fois le développement d’une identité francophone et celui de la sensibilité interculturelle de chaque élève, en incluant notamment les principes de la pédagogie culturelle et les recherches effectuées par le Conseil des ministres de l’Éducation du Canada.

Un cadre conceptuel

Les notions de concepts et de grandes idées confèrent à ce programme un niveau de pensée plus élevé en encourageant l’élève à associer plusieurs concepts pour comprendre ce qui les lie.

Chaque élève découvrira et approfondira ses connaissances des concepts langagiers et littéraires, tels que la structure, le sens, l’interprétation, les émotions ou encore l’identité. Lorsque ces concepts seront familiers, l’élève parviendra à des généralisations lui permettant de percevoir les récurrences et les liens implicites. Par exemple, c’est en explorant le concept d’image en lien avec les concepts de message et d’interprétation que l’élève de sixième année découvrira que, tout comme les textes, les images contiennent des informations et des indices révélant leur sens et les intentions de l’auteur.

Ainsi, les différents éléments constituant ce programme amènent l’élève à développer des compétences en les appliquant à des concepts et à du contenu spécifique afin d’arriver à percevoir les constances pour « comprendre » plutôt que de simplement « connaitre » des notions fondamentales à la langue française.

Les compétences essentielles

Les compétences disciplinaires que l’élève acquerra s’articulent autour des trois compétences interdisciplinaires que sont la réflexion, la communication et la compétence personnelle et sociale. Ces compétences visent le développement de la littératie, de l’esprit d’analyse et de la pensée critique. Elles conduiront l’élève à pouvoir s’exprimer de manière précise et logique, en prenant plaisir à employer le français et à faire partie de la communauté francophone de la Colombie-Britannique.

Principes d’apprentissage des peuples autochtones

Les communautés autochtones ont contribué à la richesse culturelle et linguistique de la francophonie canadienne. Un certain nombre de mots autochtones ont trouvé leur place dans la langue française. Les textes et les principes d’apprentissage autochtones sont au cœur du programme d’études de français langue première et contribuent à une prise de conscience des contextes historiques et contemporains des Premières Nations.

Ce programme est fondé sur un apprentissage holistique dans le cadre duquel le savoir s’acquiert par l’observation, l’enquête, l’esprit d’analyse et l’autoréflexion. Une grande importance est accordée à la construction identitaire pour que chaque élève découvre et définisse qui il est grâce à son apprentissage.

De plus, ce programme fait des liens explicites entre des concepts propres à la langue française ou aux cultures francophones et ceux propres aux cultures autochtones du Canada. Ainsi, l’élève approfondira ses connaissances en Français langue première tout en étant sensibilisé à différents éléments culturels autochtones.

La conception du nouveau programme d’études de Français langue première

Le nouveau  programme d’études de Français langue première suit le même format que tout autre domaine d’apprentissage en s’inspirant du modèle Savoir, Faire, Comprendre (SFC). L’élève apprend au travers du contenu (Savoir), des compétences disciplinaires (Faire) et des grandes idées (Comprendre). De plus amples informations à propos de ce modèle sont disponibles sur le site www.curriculum.gov.bc.ca.

Le contenu

Le contenu représente la composante « Savoir » du modèle. Cette composante comprend les informations essentielles que l’élève devrait connaître après son apprentissage selon le niveau scolaire, afin de développer les compétences disciplinaires. À chaque niveau, tout concept du contenu peut être appliqué au travers de multiples compétences disciplinaires qui visent à faciliter la compréhension des grandes idées.

Les compétences disciplinaires

Les compétences disciplinaires reflètent ce que l’élève devrait être capable de « Faire » selon le niveau scolaire et le domaine d’apprentissage. L’élève développe sa compétence globale en mettant en application les compétences disciplinaires (habiletés, processus et habitudes intellectuelles) dans divers contextes. Les compétences disciplinaires sont liées aux compétences essentielles – la compétence de communication, la compétence de réflexion et la compétence personnelle et sociale.

L’objectif de ce programme d’études est de placer l’élève dans des situations d’apprentissage qui lui permettront d’acquérir les compétences, connaissances et stratégies nécessaires pour communiquer et interagir en français  avec confiance et de manière efficace. L’élève développe des compétences disciplinaires qui visent à « explorer et réfléchir » ainsi qu’à « créer et communiquer » afin de comprendre le lien entre la langue et la culture. L’exemple ci-dessous illustre l’évolution du programme d’études au fil des années.

 

Maternelle

1ère

2ème

3e

Compétences
disciplinaires

Reconnaitre des unités phonologiques et les manipuler.

Segmenter et fusionner des unités phonologiques.

Reconnaitre la racine de mots inconnus pour en déduire le sens.

Définir le sens d’un mot à partir du radical et des affixes.

Les grandes idées

Les grandes idées représentent les notions fondamentales que l’élève devrait « Comprendre ». L’élève découvre ou saisit les grandes idées grâce à l’aspect « Faire » du domaine d’apprentissage en associant le contenu aux compétences disciplinaires pour en arriver à une compréhension conceptuelle.

L’exemple ci-dessous indique la progression des grandes idées et leurs aspects socioculturels étudiés dans les textes au fil des années, en se complexifiant et en acquérant une dimension plus large.

 

1ère

5ème

8ème

9ème

Grandes Idées

À travers les textes, on se découvre et on découvre le monde qui nous entoure

Les textes permettent de dresser le portrait d’une époque et des valeurs, pratiques et croyances d’une population.

À travers leurs œuvres, les auteurs peuvent partager avec leurs destinataires leur identité, leur culture, leur perception du monde et le portrait d’une époque.

Les auteurs peuvent poser un regard critique sur des enjeux sociaux à travers leurs œuvres

Les élaborations

Les élaborations ont été créées pour la plupart des compétences disciplinaires et du contenu et sont accessibles par hyperlien. Elles contiennent des exemples, des clarifications, des définitions et toute autre information liée aux composantes du programme d’études à chaque niveau scolaire. Les élaborations servent de guide à l’enseignement et à l’apprentissage.

Facteurs importants

Les conventions de la langue, l’organisation textuelle et le vocabulaire

Chaque texte possède ses caractéristiques conventionnelles et une organisation textuelle qui lui est propre. Les étudiants doivent prendre conscience des particularités des textes étudiées tout en reconnaissant l’importance de la grammaire dans l’enseignement de la langue.

L’écriture manuscrite

Les manières de communiquer ont évolué et de nos jours l’écriture manuscrite n’est plus la seule façon d’exprimer ses idées.

Introduction

Mathematics is integral to every aspect of daily life. Skills can be used to solve problems related to time, sports, travel, money management, science, and art, to name a few. Mathematics is part of the story of human history and is particularly relevant to the British Columbian story. First Peoples in British Columbia, like Indigenous people around the world, used and continue to use mathematical knowledge and competencies to make sense of the world around them.

Mathematical values and habits of mind go beyond numbers and symbols: they help us connect, create, communicate, visualize, reason, and solve. Using mathematical thinking allows us to analyze novel and complex problems from a variety of perspectives, consider possible solutions, and evaluate the effectiveness of solutions. When developed early in life, these habits of mind generate confidence in our ability to solve everyday problems without doubt or fear of math.

Observing, learning, and engaging in mathematical thinking empowers us to make sense of our world. Exploring the logic of mathematics through puzzles and games can foster a constructive mathematical disposition and result in a self-motivated and confident learner with a unique mathematical perspective. Whether students choose to pursue deeper or broader study in mathematics, the new curriculum design ensures that they are able to pursue their individual interests and passions.

Features of the Mathematics curriculum

There is an eager expectation that the Mathematics curriculum will bridge the gap between students’ mathematics knowledge and their ability to apply it in a broad range of situations that they will encounter in everyday life. This connection is facilitated through fewer learning standards, a renewed focus on flexible teaching and learning, and an emphasis on building a strong foundation of mathematical understanding and skills.

Fewer learning standards

The curriculum has fewer learning standards, allowing teachers and students to spend more time on foundational skills and applying them to real-life situations. The curriculum is intentionally focused on “hands-on” experiential learning, using foundational skills to provide students with the opportunity to encounter math in a wide variety of experiences in everyday life. The goal of developing well-educated citizens is central to this feature of the curriculum.

Flexible teaching and learning

A renewed focus on flexible teaching and learning promotes confidence in teachers to choose the strategies, resources, and application best suited to the needs of students in the local setting (e.g., connecting mathematics to the local community and building a house for Habitat for Humanity). Mathematics should be viewed as an interdisciplinary set of skills.

A strong foundation of mathematical understanding and skills

As part of building a strong foundation of mathematical understanding and skills for every student, explicit financial components have been added to the curriculum, starting in Kindergarten. In addition, the Grades 10–12 draft curriculum ensures that, regardless of the pathway chosen by a student, there will be a common experience in Mathematics that includes financial literacy, mathematical reasoning, and probability/statistics.

Design of the Mathematics curriculum

The Mathematics curriculum has the same format as all other areas of learning. Four curriculum elements — the Big Ideas, Curricular Competencies, Content, and Elaborations — link the knowing, doing, and understanding of mathematics learning. Connecting mathematics knowledge with a hands-on approach to doing mathematics will lead to a deep understanding of mathematics concepts. Learn more information about this model.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas of the Mathematics curriculum reveal the progression of related skills and concepts. For each area of mathematics — number, patterns and relations, spatial sense, and statistics and probability — important concepts are introduced in Kindergarten and evolve in both sophistication and degree of connection to the lives of students throughout the curriculum. The Big Ideas represent what students are expected to understand as a result of their learning.

To ensure a strong mathematical understanding, the Big Ideas are based on the powerful overriding themes of Mathematics that reflect the learning standards of each grade.

The five overriding themes are:

  1.  Number represents and describes quantity.
  2. Development of computational fluency requires a strong sense of number.
  3. We use patterns to represent identified regularities and to form generalizations.
  4. We can describe, measure, and compare spatial relationships.
  5. Analyzing data and chance enables us to compare and interpret.

The chart below shows the progression of learning from year to year.

Grade

Number:
Number represents and describes quantity.

Computational Fluency:
Development of computational fluency requires a strong sense of number.

Patterning:
We use patterns
to represent
identified regularities and to form generalizations.

Geometry and Measurement:
We can describe, measure, and compare spatial relationships.

Data and Probability:
Analyzing data and chance enables us to compare and interpret.

K

Numbers represent quantities that can be decomposed into smaller parts.

One-to-one correspondence and a sense of 5 and 10 are essential for fluency with numbers.

Repeating elements in patterns can be identified.

Objects have attributes that can be described, measured, and compared.

Familiar events can be described as likely or unlikely and compared.

1

Numbers to 20 represent quantities that can be decomposed into 10s and 1s.

Addition and subtraction with numbers to 10 can be modelled concretely, pictorially, and symbolically to develop computational fluency.

Repeating elements in patterns can be identified.

Objects and shapes have attributes that can be described, measured, and compared.

Concrete graphs help us to compare and interpret
data and show one-to-one correspondence.

2

Numbers to 100 represent quantities that can be decomposed into 10s and 1s.

Development of computational fluency in addition and subtraction with numbers to 100 requires an understanding of place value.

The regular change in increasing patterns can be identified and used to make generalizations.

Objects and shapes have attributes that can be described, measured, and compared.

Concrete items can be represented, compared, and interpreted pictorially in graphs.

3

Fractions are a type of number that can represent quantities.

Development of computational fluency in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers requires flexible decomposing and composing. 

Regular increases and decreases in patterns can be identified and used to make generalizations.

Standard units are used to describe, measure, and compare attributes of objects’ shapes.

The likelihood of possible outcomes can be examined, compared, and interpreted.

4

Fractions and decimals are types of numbers that can represent quantities.

Development of computational fluency and multiplicative thinking requires analysis of patterns and relations in multiplication and division.

Regular changes in patterns can be identified and represented using tools and tables.

Polygons are closed shapes with similar attributes that can be described, measured, and compared.

Analyzing and interpreting experiments in data probability develops an understanding of chance.

5

Numbers describe quantities that can be represented by equivalent fractions.

Computational fluency and flexibility with numbers extend to operations with larger (multi-digit) numbers.

Identified regularities in number patterns can be expressed in tables.

Closed shapes have area and perimeter that can be described, measured, and compared.

Data represented in graphs can be used to show many-to-one correspondence.

6

Mixed numbers and decimal numbers represent quantities that can be decomposed into parts and wholes.

Computational fluency and flexibility with numbers extend to operations with whole numbers and decimals.

Linear relations can be identified and represented using expressions with variables and line graphs and can be used to form generalizations.

Properties of objects and shapes can be described, measured, and compared using volume, area, perimeter, and angles.

Data from the results of an experiment can be used to predict the theoretical probability of an event and to compare and interpret.

7

Decimals, fractions, and percents are used to represent and describe parts and wholes of numbers.

Computational fluency and flexibility with numbers extend to operations with integers and decimals.

Linear relations can be represented in many connected ways to identify regularities and make generalizations.

The constant ratio between the circumference and diameter of circles can be used to describe, measure, and compare spatial relationships.

Data from circle graphs can be used to illustrate proportion and to compare and interpret.

8

Number represents, describes, and compares the quantities of ratios, rates, and percents.

Computational fluency and flexibility extend to operations with fractions.

Discrete linear relationships can be represented in many connected ways and used to identify and make generalizations.

The relationship between surface area and volume of 3D objects can be used to describe, measure, and compare spatial relationships.

Analyzing data by determining averages is one way to make sense of large data sets and enables us to compare and interpret.

9

The principles and processes underlying operations with numbers apply equally to algebraic situations and can be described and analyzed.

Computational fluency and flexibility with numbers extend to operations with rational numbers.

Continuous linear relationships can be identified and represented in many connected ways to identify regularities and make generalizations.

Similar shapes have proportional relationships that can be described, measured, and compared.

Analyzing the validity, reliability, and representation of data enables us to compare
and interpret.

Curricular Competencies

The Core Competencies — Thinking, Communication, and Personal and Social — are embedded in the Curricular Competencies. The Curricular Competencies introduced in Kindergarten have been expanded based on a developmental continuum throughout the grades focused on what students can do with mathematics.

Content

The Content is concept-based and reflects what students should know. It identifies the concepts or topics that students will learn about at each grade level. The Content acts as both a supporting structure intended to assist students in demonstrating the Curricular Competencies and a foundational element leading students to the Big Ideas.

Elaborations

There are Elaborations (included as hyperlinks) for many of the learning standards in the Mathematics curriculum. The Elaborations take the form of explanations, definitions, and clarifications. They provide additional information and support for both teachers and students and can serve as potential places to begin teaching and learning. Examples of Elaborations for a progression of Content learning statements are shown below.

 

K

5

8

Content

number concepts to 10

number concepts to 1 000 000

perfect squares and cubes

Elaborations

  • number concepts:
    • counting:
      • one-to-one correspondence
      • conservation
      • cardinality
      • stable order counting
      • sequencing 1 – 10
      • linking sets to numerals
      • subitizing
    • counting collections using local materials
    • counting to 10 in more than one language, including the local First Peoples language or languages

 

  • number concepts:
    • counting:
      • multiples
      • flexible counting strategies
      • whole number benchmarks
    • numbers to 1 000 000 can be arranged and recognized
      • comparing and ordering numbers
      • estimating large quantities
    • place value
      • 100 000s, 10 000s, 1000s, 100s, 10s and 1s
      • understand the relationship of digit places and their valueto 1 000 000
      • First Peoples use unique counting systems (e.g., Tsimshian use of three counting systems, for animals, people and things; Tlingit counting for the naming of numbers:
        10 = two hands, 20 = one person)
  • Perfect squares and cubes:
    • using colour tiles, pictures, or multi-link cubes
    • building the number or using prime factorization

 

Important considerations

Inquiry in Mathematics

The Mathematics curriculum continues to support the application of foundational math skills to problem solving. It is important for students to be able to approach problem solving with confidence. A problem-solving model provides students with the necessary skills to read a problem, choose from a variety of appropriate strategies, apply a strategy to solve the problem, and then reflect on the efficiency and accuracy of the strategy to explain the answer.

First Peoples perspectives

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of First Peoples in British Columbia are reflected in all provincial curricula. The First Peoples Principles of Learning consider important contexts and aspects of teaching and learning, such as the connection to place, the power of story, respect for Elders’ knowledge, and the need for a strong identity of self. It is important for teachers to use these principles to guide the incorporation of First Peoples mathematical content and knowledge in meaningful ways.

Local and traditional First Peoples knowledge contributes to our understanding of place. First Peoples knowledge is holistic and is embodied in experiential ways of learning, including the oral tradition. As First Peoples communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol for sharing local knowledge and expertise with the school system. For examples of teaching mathematics in a First Peoples context, see the First Nations Education Steering Committee website: http://www.fnesc.ca/resources/math-first-peoples/.

Mathematical habits of mind

Extensive research indicates that for students to develop mathematical habits of mind they must encounter and interact in intentional learning settings. Classroom design combined with active participation strategies will enhance student learning, increase achievement, and factor in the development of the well-educated citizen.

Students who have developed mathematics habits of mind exhibit expertise in:

  • persevering and using mathematics to solve problems in everyday life
  • recognizing there are multiple ways to solve a problem
  • demonstrating respect for diversity in approaches to solving problems
  • choosing and using appropriate strategies and tools
  • pursuing accuracy in problem solving1

 


 

Introduction

The redesigned Core French curriculum presents what students are expected to know, do, and understand in Grades 5 through 12. It provides a framework for teachers to engage students in learning experiences through which they can become proficient users of French, gain new perspectives, and engage with Francophone communities.
 

Features of the Core French curriculum

Integration of components

The redesigned Core French curriculum represents an integrated approach to language acquisition. In this approach, the following components of language acquisition are viewed as interconnected rather than in isolation:
  • Reading, writing, listening, speaking, and interacting — These essential competencies are the foundation of language acquisition. As they rarely exist in isolation in authentic communication contexts, they are integrated throughout the redesigned curriculum. Each element of the curriculum supports the simultaneous development of multiple competencies.
  • Grammar — With a focus on the purposeful use of language to communicate meaning, the redesigned curriculum views grammatical instruction as playing a supportive role.
  • Culture — Language is inextricably bound to culture. Culture is a vehicle for acquiring a deeper understanding of a given language, of others, and of oneself. Authentic communication always takes place in a cultural context, and language acquisition activities in the classroom must therefore be situated within such a context. As students explore French and the Francophone world, they simultaneously acquire both the language and an understanding of the many varieties of Francophone culture and the relationship between the two, contributing to their appreciation of other cultures as well as their own.
  • Language-learning strategies — Language-learning strategies are seen as a vehicle for helping students succeed in their language acquisition journey and are integrated throughout the curriculum.

Flexible teaching and learning

The Core French curriculum allows for instructional flexibility. For example, the curriculum components can be combined in different ways to provide a diverse range of learning opportunities. Within each grade, there are multiple ways to combine Content, Curricular Competencies, and Big Ideas to create lessons, units, and learning experiences. The curriculum encourages the use of a range of approaches that support language instruction and acquisition.

Use of a wide variety of text types

The Core French curriculum encourages the use of a wide variety of text types. “Text” in the Core French curriculum is defined as any piece of oral, visual, or written communication. Texts may be delivered through many different modes, such as face-to-face communication, audio and video recordings, print materials, or digital media. Examples of texts include but are not limited to:
 
advertisements, articles, biographies, blogs, brochures, cartoons, charts, conversations, diagrams, emails, essays, films, First Peoples oral histories, forms, graphs, instructions, interviews, invitations, legends, letters, myths, narratives, news reports, novels, nursery rhymes, online profiles, paintings, photographs, picture books, poems, presentations, songs, speeches, stories, surveys, and text messages
 
Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of grade-appropriate text types in their classrooms.
 
Teachers may choose to use authentic or adapted Francophone texts with their students. Purposes for using adapted texts include:
  • to increase student comprehension (e.g., by simplifying the text)
  • to increase student exposure to target vocabulary and patterns (e.g., by repeating key vocabulary or grammatical structures throughout a text)
  • to increase the saliency of high-frequency vocabulary and patterns (e.g., by underlining, bolding, or highlighting)

Infusing Aboriginal content and perspectives

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of Aboriginal peoples in BC are reflected in all provincial curricula.

First Peoples Principles of Learning

The First Peoples Principles of Learning (Les principes d’apprentissage des Peuples Autochtones) have been affirmed within First Peoples societies to guide the teaching and learning of provincial curricula. Because these principles of learning represent an attempt to identify common elements in the varied teaching and learning approaches that prevail within particular First Peoples societies, it must be recognized that they do not capture the full reality of the approach used in any single First Peoples society.
 
The First Peoples Principles of Learning greatly influence the Core French curriculum and are woven throughout. They lend themselves well to second-language learning as they promote experiential and reflexive learning, as well as self-advocacy and personal responsibility in learners. They help create classroom experiences based on the concepts of community, shared learning, and trust, all of which are vital to second-language acquisition.

Working with the Aboriginal community

To address Aboriginal content and perspectives in the classroom in a way that is accurate and that respectfully reflects Aboriginal concepts of teaching and learning, teachers are strongly encouraged to seek the advice and support of members of local Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol to gain support for integration of local knowledge and expertise. Permission for the use or translation of cultural materials or practises should be obtained through consultation with individuals, families and other community members. This authorization should be obtained prior to the use of any educational plans or materials.
 
To begin discussion of possible instructional and assessment activities, teachers should first contact Aboriginal education co-ordinators, teachers, support workers, and counsellors in their district who will be able to facilitate the identification of local resources and contacts such as Elders, chiefs, First Nations tribal or band councils, Aboriginal cultural centres, Aboriginal Friendship Centres, and Métis or Inuit organizations. In addition, teachers may wish to consult the various Ministry of Education publications available, including the “Planning Your Program” section of the resource Shared Learnings. This resource was developed to help all teachers provide students with knowledge of, and opportunities to share experiences with, Aboriginal peoples in BC.
 
For more information about these documents, consult the Aboriginal Education web site: www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/welcome.htm

Authentic Texts and Resources

In order to present authentic First Peoples content and worldviews, it is important to draw from Aboriginal learning and teaching resources. Authentic First Peoples texts and resources are those that:

  • present authentic First Peoples voices—i.e., historical and contemporary texts created by First Peoples (or through the substantial contributions of First Peoples)
  • depict themes and issues important to First Peoples cultures (e.g., loss of identity and affirmation of identity, tradition, healing, role of family, importance of Elders, connection to the land, the nature and place of spirituality as an aspect of wisdom, the relationships between individual and community, the importance of oral tradition, the experience of colonization and decolonization)
  • incorporate First Peoples story-telling techniques and features as applicable (e.g., circular structure, repetition, weaving in of spirituality, humour)
Due to the diversity of Aboriginal communities in BC, Canada and the world, and the need to provide a relevant context to classroom instruction and assessment, it is suggested that resource selection focuses primarily on First Peoples texts and resources from the local community wherever possible.  

Benefits beyond linguistic ability

The Core French curriculum supports the principle that Core French students gain not only the ability to communicate effectively in French but also many other benefits, including:
  • improved overall cognitive development and creative thinking
  • the development of cultural awareness and understanding
  • a deepened understanding of their own identity
  • an enhanced understanding of their first language
  • language-learning strategies that can be transferred to additional languages

Design of the Core French curriculum

The redesigned Core French curriculum follows the same format as in all other areas of learning and is based on the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Students learn through Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). 

Content

Content represents the core knowledge students will have — what they are expected to “Know.” In language acquisition, Content represents the pieces students must have to be able to use the language at a given grade level (i.e., to apply the Curricular Competencies). In each grade, each of the Content learning standards support multiple Curricular Competencies (the “Do” component of the curriculum). The following is an example of the interrelationship between Content and Curricular Competencies:

Grade 7

Curricular Competencies

  • Use intonation and tone effectively to convey meaning in French
  • Seek clarification of meaning with a variety of statements and questions
  • Follow instructions to complete a task, including responding to questions or asking relevant follow-up questions
  • Exchange ideas and information using complete sentences, orally and in writing:
    -Ask and answer questions in context
  • Share information using more than one mode of presentation

Content

  • Common, high-frequency vocabulary and sentence structures for communicating meaning:
    – Asking and responding to different types of questions
 
Students build on their Content knowledge from year to year. Some Content learning standards appear over more than one year because they may take longer to fully acquire or they may support increasingly complex Curricular Competencies. When identical Content learning standards appear across multiple grades, Elaborations further clarify how deeply the Content learning standard is expected to be covered at each grade. The examples below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.
 
  5 7 9 11 12
Content asking and responding to simple questions asking and responding to different types of questions asking and responding to various types of questions asking and responding to complex questions asking and responding to a wide range of complex questions
Elaboration
simple questions: 
for example, Comment…?; Est-ce que…?; Où…?; Quand…?; Quel…?; 
Qu’est-ce que…?; Qui…?
different types of questions: 
for example, Combien…?; Comment…?; Est-ce que…?; Où…?; Pourquoi…?; Quand…?; Quel…?; Qu’est-ce que…?; Qui…?
various types 
of questions: including inversion questions; 
for example, 
As-tu un crayon?; Va-t-il au cinéma?; 
Aimez-vous ce livre? 
   
 

Curricular Competencies

Curricular Competencies are what students should be able to “Do” with their Content knowledge. Language acquisition is very process-driven, and “Doing” plays an important role. Since the goal is proficiency in using the language rather than learning about the language, more elements are included in the Curricular Competencies column of the Core French curriculum than in the Content column. Through purposeful communication in class, learners develop competencies in listening to understand, communicating effectively, presenting their ideas in French with confidence and fluency, and understanding the connections between language and culture.
 
Students also build on their Curricular Competencies from year to year. The example below illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.
 
  5 7 8 9 10
Curricular
Competencies
Understand simple stories Understand simple stories

Understand and retell stories

Narrate simple stories

Narrate stories

Recognize the importance of story in personal, family, and community identity

Narrate stories orally and in writing

Recognize the importance of story in personal, family, and community identity
  Definition of stories: stories can be oral, written, or visual, and fictional or non-fictional (for example, a series of pictures, First Peoples oral histories, personal stories, skits, student-created stories).

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are generalizations and principles discovered through experiencing the Content
and Curricular Competencies of the curriculum — the “Understand” component of the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Big Ideas represent the “aha!” and the “so what?” of the curriculum — the deeper learning.

From year to year, students discover new Big Ideas and also build on the Big Ideas from previous years. The example below, concerning the theme of culture, illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning as students progress through the grades.

 

5

7

8

10

12

 Big Ideas

Each culture has traditions and ways of celebrating.

Deepening our knowledge of Francophone communities helps us develop cultural awareness.

Acquiring a new language and learning about another culture deepens our understanding of our own language and culture.

Acquiring a language provides us with new opportunities to appreciate and value creative works and cultural diversity.

Experiencing the creative works of other cultures helps us develop our appreciation of cultures worldwide.

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided (as hyperlinks) in many places throughout the curriculum.
They offer additional clarification and support for teachers, including definitions, examples, and information regarding the depth and breadth to which topics should be covered at a given grade. Examples provided in the elaborations are not intended to be comprehensive lists of what must be covered in a given grade; they are simply examples. Elaborations may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching Core French.

Important Considerations

Diverse contexts

Throughout British Columbia, students learn French in many contexts. Schools where Core French is offered are organized in different ways — for example, K–5, 6–9, and 10–12, or K–7 and 8–12. Schools also allocate different amounts of time for Core French, and some include programs such as Intensive French.1 These contexts affect staffing and the types and amounts of resources and supports available to teachers and students. As well, Core French teachers range from beginning generalists to highly experienced specialists. Although these diverse factors may result in variations in instruction, the flexibility of the Core French curriculum is designed to support teachers and learners in a wide range of contexts.

Language of instruction

It is important that French be used as the language of instruction for the Core French curriculum. As French is a minority language in British Columbia, opportunities for students to use the language outside the classroom are likely to be limited. Research shows that increasing exposure to and use of the target language is essential to increasing proficiency. Therefore, while it is also understood that students at times may need some discussions or examples in English, both teachers and students are encouraged to use French at every opportunity.

Engaging with the wider Francophone community

In language education, all aspects of learning are enriched when students engage with members of the target language community. Engagement with Francophone communities, people, or experiences can mean different things in different contexts. It may include, for example, inviting community members into the classroom (in person or virtually); making connections with other French classes and schools; attending festivals, films, concerts, plays, and other cultural and community events; frequenting stores, restaurants, and community centres where French is used; and interacting with the online Francophone community through blogs, chats, and other forms of social media. Teachers are encouraged to provide a variety of these experiences for their students. Students, particularly in the upper grades, are also encouraged to seek and initiate engagement with Francophone communities, people, or experiences to help build their identity as French speakers and to foster opportunities to continue their acquisition of French beyond graduation.

Language education policy

Ministry of Education policy states that all students must take a second language as part of the curriculum in Grades 5 to 8. Boards of education decide which second languages will be offered. Core French will be the language offered if a board does not offer an alternative.

A student may be exempt from the taking a second language in Grades 5 to 8 if the student has been identified as having special needs or is receiving English Language Learner (ELL) services and is unable to demonstrate learning in relation to the expected learning outcomes of the second language course.

Although ministry policy states that students identified as having special needs or receiving ELL services may be exempted from second-language study, not all students so identified should be exempted. For some students, the study of a second-language study enhances their first-language development and thus can be beneficial for students with special needs. English Language Learners (ELL) also may benefit from being included in the Core French classroom, as many of them have already mastered language-learning strategies, and Core French may be the only area of learning in which they feel they are able to perform as well as their non-ELL classmates. For these students, acquiring French can provide a sense of confidence and pride.


1Intensive French can be considered an extension of Core French. In British Columbia, the program starts at Grade 6 with four hours daily of French instruction for half the year and the fifth hour dedicated to math taught in English. For the other half of the year, students receive one hour of French instruction per day, and the rest of the week is dedicated to a compacted curriculum of all other studies in English. French is taught using literacy strategies around familiar topics. Taught in many provinces across Canada, and in school districts around British Columbia, Intensive French uses a methodology based on the neurolinguistic approach and on research by Dr. Claude Germain and Dr. Joan Netton.