Core French

Introduction

The Core French curriculum presents what students are expected to know, do, and understand in Grades 5 through 12. It provides teachers with a framework for engaging students in learning experiences through which they can become proficient users of French, gain new perspectives, and engage with Francophone communities.

Features of the Core French curriculum

Integration of components

The Core French curriculum represents an integrated approach to language acquisition. In this approach, the following components of language acquisition are viewed as interconnected rather than in isolation:

  • Reading, writing, listening, speaking, and interacting – These essential competencies are the foundation of language acquisition. As they rarely exist in isolation in authentic communication contexts, they are integrated throughout the curriculum. Each element of the curriculum supports the simultaneous development of multiple competencies.
  • Grammar – With a focus on the purposeful use of language to communicate meaning, grammatical instruction plays a supportive role.
  • Culture – Language is inextricably bound to culture. Culture is a vehicle for acquiring a deeper understanding of a given language, of others, and of oneself. Authentic communication always takes place in a cultural context, and language acquisition activities in the classroom must therefore be situated within such a context. As students explore the French language and the Francophone world, they simultaneously acquire both the language and an understanding of the many varieties of Francophone culture – and the relationship between the two. This contributes to their appreciation of other cultures as well as their own.
  • Language-learning strategies – Language-learning strategies are seen as a vehicle for helping students succeed in their language acquisition journey and are integrated throughout the curriculum.

Flexible teaching and learning

The Core French curriculum allows for instructional flexibility. For example, the curriculum components can be combined in different ways to provide a diverse range of learning opportunities. Within each grade, there are multiple ways to combine Content, Curricular Competencies, and Big Ideas to create lessons, units, and learning experiences. The curriculum encourages the use of a range of approaches that support language instruction and acquisition, and supports students learning in a manner best suited to their diverse abilities.
 

Core French Introductory 11

A new course, Core French Introductory 11, has been developed to offer an opportunity for students who did not begin Core French in the elementary grades to enter Core French at the secondary level. Core French Introductory 11 is an intensive course, designed to cover essential learning standards from Grades 5 to 10 in an accelerated time frame in order to prepare students for Core French 11. It should be noted that this course does not replace the richness of the regular Core French 5-10 curriculum.

It is assumed that students will have limited to no background in Core French prior to enrolment in Core French Introductory 11. However, as contexts vary, districts may use their discretion with regard to admission criteria for this course. Enrolment in Core French Introductory 11 is not limited to Grade 11 students, and there are no prerequisites for this course.

Use of a wide variety of text types

The Core French curriculum encourages the use of a wide variety of text types. “Text” in the Core French curriculum refers to all forms of oral, written, visual, and digital communication, including authentic or adapted texts (e.g., advertisements, articles, biographies, blogs, brochures, cartoons, charts, conversations, diagrams, emails, essays, films, forms, graphs, indigenous oral histories, instructions, interviews, invitations, letters, narratives, news reports, novels, nursery rhymes, online profiles, paintings, photographs, picture books, poems, presentations, songs, speeches, stories, surveys, text messages).

Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of grade-appropriate text types in their classrooms. Teachers may choose to use authentic and/or adapted texts with their students. Purposes for using adapted texts include increasing:

  • student comprehension
  • student exposure to target vocabulary and patterns
  • the saliency of high-frequency vocabulary and patterns

Infusing Aboriginal content and perspectives

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of First Peoples in British Columbia are reflected in all provincial curricula.

First Peoples Principles of Learning

The First Peoples Principles of Learning have been affirmed within First Peoples societies to guide the teaching and learning of provincial curricula. Because these principles of learning represent an attempt to identify common elements in the varied teaching and learning approaches that prevail within particular First Peoples societies, it must be recognized that they do not capture the full reality of the approach used in any single First Peoples society.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning greatly influence the Core French curriculum and are woven throughout. They lend themselves well to second-language learning as they promote experiential and reflexive learning, as well as self-advocacy and personal responsibility in learners. They help create classroom experiences based on the concepts of community, shared learning, and trust, all of which are vital to second-language acquisition.

Design of the Core French curriculum

The Core French curriculum follows the same format as is used in all other areas of learning and is based on the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Students learn through Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). More information about the model is available at https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are generalizations and principles discovered through experiencing the Content
and Curricular Competencies of the curriculum – the “Understand” component of the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Big Ideas represent the “aha!” and the “so what?” of the curriculum – the deeper learning.

From year to year, students discover new Big Ideas and also build on the Big Ideas from previous years. The example below, concerning the theme of culture, illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning as students progress through the grades.

 

5

7

8

10

12

Big Ideas

Each culture has traditions and ways of celebrating.

Deepening our knowledge of Francophone communities helps us develop cultural awareness.

Our understanding of culture is influenced by the languages we speak and the communities with which we engage.

Cultural expression can take many different forms.

Exploring diverse forms of cultural expression promotes a greater understanding and appreciation of cultures worldwide.

Curricular Competencies

Curricular Competencies are what students should be able to “Do” with their Content knowledge. Language acquisition is very process-driven, and “Doing” plays an important role. Since the goal is proficiency in using the language rather than learning about the language, more elements are included in the Curricular Competencies column of the Core French curriculum than in the Content column. Through purposeful communication in class, learners develop competencies in listening to understand, in communicating effectively, in presenting their ideas in French with confidence and fluency, and in understanding the connections between language and culture.

Students also build on their Curricular Competencies from year to year. The example below illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

 

7

8

9

10

Curricular
Competencies

Comprehend simple stories

Comprehend and retell stories

Narrate simple stories

Narrate stories

Explore the importance of story in personal, family, and community identity

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Explore the importance of story in personal, family, and community identity

 

Content

Content represents the core knowledge students will have – what they are expected to “Know.” In language acquisition, Content represents the pieces students must have to be able to use the language at a given grade level (i.e., to apply the Curricular Competencies). In each grade, each of the Content learning standards supports multiple Curricular Competencies (the “Do” component of the curriculum). Students build on their Content knowledge from year to year. Some Content learning standards appear over more than one year because they may take longer to fully acquire or they may support increasingly complex Curricular Competencies. When identical Content learning standards appear across multiple grades, Elaborations further clarify how deeply the Content learning standard is expected to be covered at each grade. The examples below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

 

5

7

8

10

12

Content

likes, dislikes, preferences, and interests

 

reasons for likes, dislikes, and preferences

descriptions of items, people, and personal interests

 

hopes, dreams, desires, and ambitions

 

explanations of needs, emotions, and opinions

 

 

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided (as hyperlinks) in many places throughout the curriculum. They offer additional clarification and support for teachers, including definitions, examples, and information regarding the depth and breadth to which topics should be covered at a given grade. Examples provided in the elaborations are not intended to be comprehensive lists of what must be covered in a given grade; they are simply examples. Elaborations may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching Core French.

  

Big Idea

Curricular Competency

Content

      Grade 8

We can share our experiences and perspective through stories

Explore ways to engage in experiences with Francophone communities and people

a variety of questions

 

Elaborations

stories: Stories are narrative texts that can be oral, written, or visual. Stories can be simple or complex and may be derived from real or imagined experiences. They can be used to seek and impart knowledge, entertain, share history, and strengthen a sense of identity. Examples are indigenous oral histories, personal stories, skits, series of pictures, songs, student-created stories. 

ways to engage: for example, blogs, classroom and school visits (including virtual/online visits), clubs, concerts, courses, exchanges, festivals, films, pen-pal letters, magazines, newspapers, plays, social media and other online resources, stores/restaurants with service in French

questions: for example, Combien…?; Comment…?; Est-ce que…?; Où…?; Pourquoi…?; Quand…?; Quel…?; Qu’est-ce que…?; Qui…?

 

 

Important Considerations

Diverse contexts

Throughout British Columbia, students learn French in many contexts. Schools where Core French is offered are organized in different ways – for example, K-5, 6-9, and 10-12, or K-7 and 8-12. Schools also allocate different amounts of time for Core French, and some include programs such as Intensive French. These contexts affect staffing and the types and amounts of resources and supports available to teachers and students. As well, Core French teachers range from beginning generalists to highly experienced specialists. Although these diverse factors may result in variations in instruction, the flexibility of the Core French curriculum is designed to support teachers and learners in a wide range of contexts.

Language of instruction

It is important that French be used as the language of instruction for the Core French curriculum. As French is a minority language in British Columbia, opportunities for students to use the language outside the classroom may be limited. Research shows that increasing exposure to and use of the target language is essential to increasing proficiency. Therefore, while it is also understood that students at times may need some discussions or examples in the prevailing language of the school, both teachers and students are encouraged to use French at every opportunity.

Benefits beyond linguistic ability

The Core French curriculum supports the principle that Core French students gain not only the ability to communicate effectively in French but also many other benefits, including:

  • improved overall cognitive development and creative thinking
  • the development of cultural awareness and understanding
  • a deepened understanding of their own identity
  • an enhanced understanding of their first language
  • language-learning strategies that can be transferred to additional languages

Engaging with the wider Francophone community

In language education, all aspects of learning are enriched when students engage with members
of the target language community. Engagement with Francophone communities, people, or experiences can mean different things in different contexts. It may include, for example, inviting community members into the classroom (in person or virtually); making connections with other French classes and schools; attending festivals, films, concerts, plays, and other cultural and community events; frequenting stores, restaurants, and community centres where French is used; and interacting with the online Francophone community through blogs, chats, and other forms of social media. Teachers are encouraged to provide a variety of these experiences for their students. Students, particularly in the upper grades, are also encouraged to seek and initiate engagement with Francophone communities, people, or experiences to help build their identity as French speakers and to foster opportunities to continue their acquisition of the French language beyond graduation.

Links to Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

The Ministry of Education remains supportive of teachers who wish to make use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as a supporting tool in their Core French classroom. The ministry recognizes that CEFR can be a valuable assessment tool for second-language learners and that a number of Core French teachers in the province are currently using it with their students and would like to continue doing so.

Working with First Peoples communities

To address First Peoples content and perspectives in the classroom in a way that is accurate and that respectfully reflects First Peoples concepts of teaching and learning, teachers are strongly encouraged to seek the advice and support of members of local First Peoples communities. As First Peoples communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol for gaining support for integration of local knowledge and expertise. Permission for the use or translation of cultural materials or practices should be obtained through consultation with individuals, families, and other community members. This authorization should be obtained prior to the use of any educational plans or materials.

To begin a discussion about possible instructional and assessment activities, teachers should first contact First Peoples education coordinators, teachers, support workers, and counsellors in their district who will be able to facilitate the identification of local resources and contacts such as Elders, chiefs, First Nations tribal or band councils, First Peoples cultural centres, First Peoples Friendship Centres, and Métis or Inuit organizations. In addition, teachers may wish to consult the various Ministry of Education publications available, including the “Planning Your Program” section of the resource Shared Learnings. This resource was developed to help all teachers provide students with knowledge of, and opportunities to share experiences with, First Peoples in British Columbia.

For more information about these documents, consult the Aboriginal Education website: www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/welcome.htm

Authentic First Peoples texts and resources

In order to present authentic First Peoples content and worldviews, it is important to draw from First Peoples learning and teaching resources. Authentic First Peoples texts and resources are those that:

  • present authentic First Peoples voices – that is, historical and contemporary texts created by First Peoples (or through the substantial contributions of First Peoples)
  • depict themes and issues important to First Peoples cultures (e.g., loss of identity and affirmation of identity, tradition, healing, role of family, importance of Elders, connection to the land, the nature and place of spirituality as an aspect of wisdom, the relationships between individual and community, the importance of oral tradition, the experience of colonization and decolonization)
  • incorporate First Peoples story-telling techniques and features as applicable (e.g., circular structure, repetition, weaving in of spirituality, humour).

Because of the diversity of First Peoples communities in British Columbia and Canada and of indigenous peoples in the world, and the need to provide a relevant context for classroom instruction and assessment, it is suggested that resource selection focus primarily on First Peoples texts and resources from the local community wherever possible.  

Introduction to American Sign Language

The American Sign Language (ASL) as a Second Language curriculum presents what students are expected to know, do, and understand in Grades 5 through 12. It provides teachers with a framework for immersing students in learning experiences through which they can gain new perspectives, engage with D/deaf communities, and become proficient users of ASL. 

Features of the ASL curriculum

Integration of components

The ASL curriculum represents an integrated approach to language acquisition. With this approach, the following components of language acquisition are viewed as interconnected rather than as existing in isolation:

  • Receptive and expressive reciprocal communication skills – These essential competencies are the foundation of language acquisition. As they rarely exist in isolation in authentic communication contexts, they are integrated throughout the curriculum. Each element of the curriculum supports the simultaneous development of multiple competencies.
  • Grammar – With a focus on the purposeful use of language to communicate meaning, grammatical instruction plays a supportive role. ASL has its own grammatical rules and syntax, which are not based on, or derived from, any other language.
  • Culture – Language is inextricably bound to culture. Culture is a vehicle for acquiring a deeper understanding of a given language, of others, and of oneself. Authentic communication always takes place in a cultural context, and language acquisition activities in the classroom must therefore be situated within such a context. As students explore American Sign Language and the D/deaf world, they simultaneously acquire both the language and an understanding of the diversity of D/deaf culture and the relationships between the two. This contributes to their appreciation of other cultures as well as their own.
  • Language-learning strategies – Language-learning strategies are seen as a vehicle for helping students succeed in their language acquisition journey and are integrated throughout the curriculum.

Flexible teaching and learning

The ASL curriculum allows for instructional flexibility. For example, the curriculum components can be combined in different ways to provide a diverse range of learning opportunities. Within each grade, there are multiple ways to combine Content and Curricular Competencies in creating lessons, units, and learning experiences to lead students to discovery of the generalizations and principles of the Big Ideas. The curriculum encourages the use of a range of approaches that both support language instruction and acquisition and support students’ learning in a manner best suited to their diverse abilities.

Use of a wide variety of text types

The ASL curriculum encourages the use of a wide variety of text types. “Text” in the ASL curriculum refers to all forms of visual, written, and digital communication.         

Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of grade-appropriate text types in their classrooms to encourage:

  • student comprehension
  • student exposure to target vocabulary and patterns
  • the saliency of high-frequency vocabulary and patterns

Integrating First Peoples content and perspectives

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of First Peoples in British Columbia are reflected in all provincial curricula.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning have been affirmed within First Peoples societies to guide the teaching and learning of provincial curricula. Because these principles of learning represent an attempt to identify common elements in the varied teaching and learning approaches that prevail within particular First Peoples societies, it must be recognized that they do not capture the full reality of the approach used in any single First Peoples society.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning are woven throughout and greatly influence the ASL curriculum. They lend themselves well to language learning, as they promote experiential and reflexive learning, as well as self-advocacy and personal responsibility in students. They help create classroom experiences based on the concepts of community, shared learning, and trust, all of which are vital to language acquisition.

Design of the ASL curriculum

The ASL curriculum follows the same format as is used in all other curricular areas and is based on the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Students learn through Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). More information on the curriculum model is available at https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/curriculum/overview.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are generalizations and principles discovered through experiencing the Content and Curricular Competencies of the curriculum – the “Understand” component of the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Big Ideas represent the “aha!” and the “so what?” of the curriculum – the deeper learning.

From year to year, students discover new Big Ideas and also build on the Big Ideas from previous years. The example below from the ASL curriculum illustrates how the theme of non-verbal cues grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning as they progress through the grades.

 

5

7

9

11

 

Big Ideas

Non-verbal cues contribute meaning in language.

Non-verbal cues are integral to communicating meaning.

Conversing about things we care about can motivate our learning of a new language.

The communicative context determines how we express ourselves.

Curricular Competencies

Curricular Competencies are what students should be able to “Do” with their Content knowledge. Language acquisition is very process-driven, and “Doing” plays an important role. Since the goal is proficiency in using the language rather than learning about the language, more elements are included in the Curricular Competencies column of the ASL curriculum than in the Content column. Through purposeful communication in class, students develop competencies in viewing to understand, communicating effectively, presenting their ideas in ASL with confidence and fluency, and understanding the connections between language and culture.

Students also build on their application of the Curricular Competencies from year to year. The example below illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

11

 

Curricular Competencies

Recognize the relationship between gestures, common facial expression and meaning

Recognize the relationship between common hand shapes and location of signs and how they make meaning

Recognize the relationship between common hand shapes, movement and location of signs to make different meanings

Recognize how choice of signs affects meaning

Content

Content represents the core knowledge students will have – what they are expected to “Know.” In language acquisition, Content represents the pieces students must have to be able to use the language at a given grade level (i.e., to apply the Curricular Competencies). In each grade, each of the Content learning standards supports multiple Curricular Competencies (the “Do” component of the curriculum).

Students build on their Content knowledge from year to year. Some Content learning standards bridge more than one year because they may take longer to fully acquire or they may support increasingly complex Curricular Competencies. When identical Content learning standards appear across multiple grades, elaborations further clarify how deeply the Content learning standard is expected to be covered at each grade. The examples below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

8

10

12

 

Content 

Information about themselves and others

People, objects, and personal interests

Situations, activities, sequence of events

Needs and emotions

Complex questions and opinions

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided in many places throughout the curriculum. They offer additional clarification and support for teachers, including definitions, examples, and information regarding the depth and breadth to which topics should be covered at a given grade. Examples provided in the elaborations are not intended to be comprehensive lists of what must be covered in a given grade; they are simply examples. Elaborations may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching ASL.

 

Big Idea

Curricular Competency

Content

Grade 8

Creative works are an expression of language and culture.

Narrate and retell stories

cultural aspects of Deaf communities

Elaborations

Creative works:  represent the experience of the people from whose culture they are drawn (e.g., books, dance, paintings, pictures, poems, songs, architecture)

Narrate and retell:
  • using common expressions of time and transitional words to show logical progression
  • using past, present, and future time frames
  • in ASL or written language

cultural aspects: Deaf communities and culture tend to be collectivistic (i.e., focused on the group and its interests) in nature.

 

Important considerations

Diverse contexts

Throughout British Columbia, students learn ASL in many contexts. Schools where ASL is offered are organized in different ways, resources and support available to teachers and students vary among different schools, and ASL teachers range from beginning generalists to highly experienced specialists. While these diverse factors may result in variations in instruction, the flexibility of the ASL curriculum is purposefully designed to support teachers and students in a wide range of contexts.

Language of instruction

It is important that ASL be used as the language of instruction for the ASL curriculum. As ASL is a minority language in British Columbia, opportunities for students to use the language outside the classroom may be limited. Research shows that increasing exposure to and use of the target language is essential to increasing proficiency. Therefore, while it is also understood that students at times may need some discussions or examples in the prevailing language of the school, both teachers and students are encouraged to use ASL at every opportunity.

Benefits beyond linguistic ability

The ASL curriculum supports the principle that ASL language learners gain not only the ability to communicate effectively in ASL but also experience many other benefits, including:

  • improved overall cognitive development and creative thinking
  • the development of cultural awareness and understanding
  • a deepened understanding of their own identity
  • an enhanced understanding of their first language
  • language-learning strategies that can be transferred to additional languages

Engaging with the D/deaf community

In language education, all aspects of learning are enriched when students engage with members of the target language community. Engagement with the wider D/deaf community and people can mean different things in different contexts. It may include, for example:

  • inviting community members into the classroom (in person or virtually)
  • making connections with other ASL classes and schools
  • attending festivals, films, concerts, plays, and other cultural and community events
  • frequenting locales where ASL is used
  • interacting with the pre-approved and secured online ASL community through blogs, visual “chats”, and other forms of social media

Teachers are encouraged to provide a variety of these experiences for their students. Students, particularly in the upper grades, are also encouraged to seek and initiate engagement with ASL communities and people, to help build their identity as ASL users and to foster opportunities to continue their acquisition of ASL beyond graduation.

Links to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

The Ministry of Education remains supportive of teachers who wish to make use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as a supporting tool in their classroom. The Ministry recognizes that the CEFR can be a valuable assessment tool and that a number of language teachers in the province are currently using it with their students and would like to continue to do so. While the CEFR does not explicitly include ASL, other European-based sign languages are included, and as a result there may be value in this tool for some teachers.

Working with First Peoples communities

To address First Peoples content and perspectives in the classroom in a way that is accurate and that respectfully reflects First Peoples concepts of teaching and learning, teachers are strongly encouraged to seek the advice and support of members of local First Peoples communities. As First Peoples communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol to gain support for integration of local knowledge and expertise. Permission for the use or translation of cultural materials or practices should be obtained through consultation with individuals, families, and other community members. This authorization should be obtained prior to the use of any educational plans or materials.

To begin discussion about possible instructional and assessment activities, teachers should first contact First Peoples education coordinators, teachers, support workers, and counsellors in their district who will be able to facilitate the identification of local resources and contacts, such as Elders, chiefs, First Nations tribal or band councils, First Peoples cultural centres, First Peoples friendship centres, and Métis or Inuit organizations. In addition, teachers may wish to consult the various Ministry of Education publications available, including the “Planning Your Program” section of the resource Shared Learnings. This resource was developed to help all teachers provide students with knowledge of, and opportunities to share experiences with, First Peoples in B.C. For more information about these documents, consult the Aboriginal Education website: www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/welcome.htm.

Authentic First Peoples texts and resources

In order to present authentic First Peoples content and worldviews, it is important to draw from First Peoples learning and teaching resources. Authentic First Peoples texts and resources are those that:

  • present authentic First Peoples voices (i.e., historical and contemporary texts created by First Peoples or through the substantial contributions of First Peoples)
  • depict themes and issues important to First Peoples cultures (e.g., loss of identity and affirmation of identity, tradition, healing, role of family, importance of Elders, connection with the land, the nature and place of spirituality as an aspect of wisdom, the relationships between individual and community, the importance of oral tradition, the experience of colonization and decolonization)
  • incorporate First Peoples story-telling techniques and features as applicable (e.g., circular structure, repetition, weaving in of spirituality, humour)

Because of the diversity of First Peoples communities in B.C. and Canada and indigenous peoples in the rest of the world, and the need to provide a relevant context for classroom instruction and assessment, it is suggested that resource selection focus primarily on First Peoples texts and resources from the local community wherever possible.

Introduction to German

The German curriculum presents what students are expected to know, do, and understand in Grades 5 through 12. It provides teachers with a framework for immersing students in learning experiences through which they can gain new perspectives, engage with German-speaking communities, and become proficient users of German.

Features of the German curriculum

Integration of components

The German curriculum represents an integrated approach to language acquisition. With this approach, the following components of language acquisition are viewed as interconnected rather than in isolation:

  • Reading, writing, listening, speaking, and interacting – These essential competencies are the foundation of language acquisition. As they rarely exist in isolation in authentic communication contexts, they are integrated throughout the curriculum. Each element of the curriculum supports the simultaneous development of multiple competencies.
  • Grammar – With a focus on the purposeful use of language to communicate meaning, grammatical instruction plays a supportive role.
  • Culture – Language is inextricably bound to culture. Culture is a vehicle for acquiring a deeper understanding of a given language, of others, and of oneself. Authentic communication always takes place in a cultural context, and language acquisition activities in the classroom must therefore be situated within such a context. As students explore the German language and the German-speaking world, they simultaneously acquire both the language and an understanding of the diversity of German culture and the relationships between the two. This contributes to their appreciation of other cultures as well as their own.
  • Language-learning strategies – Language-learning strategies are seen as a vehicle for helping students succeed in their language acquisition journey and are integrated throughout the curriculum.

Flexible teaching and learning

The German curriculum allows for instructional flexibility. For example, the curriculum components can be combined in different ways to provide a diverse range of learning opportunities. Within each grade, there are multiple ways to combine Content and Curricular Competencies in creating lessons, units, and learning experiences to lead students to discovery of the generalizations and principles of the Big Ideas. The curriculum encourages the use of a range of approaches that both support language instruction and acquisition and support students’ learning in a manner best suited to their diverse abilities.

Use of a wide variety of text types

The German curriculum encourages the use of a wide variety of text types. “Text” in the German curriculum refers to all forms of oral, written, visual, and digital communication.

Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of grade-appropriate text types in their classrooms. Teachers may choose to use authentic (primary source) and/or adapted (translated into German) texts with their students to encourage:

  • student comprehension
  • student exposure to target vocabulary and patterns
  • the saliency of high-frequency vocabulary and patterns

Integrating First Peoples content and perspectives

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of First Peoples in British Columbia are reflected in all provincial curricula.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning have been affirmed within First Peoples societies to guide the teaching and learning of provincial curricula. Because these principles of learning represent an attempt to identify common elements in the varied teaching and learning approaches that prevail within particular First Peoples societies, it must be recognized that they do not capture the full reality of the approach used in any single First Peoples society.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning are woven throughout and greatly influence the German curriculum. They lend themselves well to language learning, as they promote experiential and reflexive learning, as well as self-advocacy and personal responsibility in students. They help create classroom experiences based on the concepts of community, shared learning, and trust, all of which are vital to language acquisition.

Design of the German curriculum

The German curriculum follows the same format as is used in all other curricular areas and is based on the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Students learn through Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). More information on the curriculum model is available at https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/curriculum/overview.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are generalizations and principles discovered through experiencing the Content and Curricular Competencies of the curriculum – the “Understand” component of the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Big Ideas represent the “aha!” and the “so what?” of the curriculum – the deeper learning.

From year to year, students discover new Big Ideas and also build on the Big Ideas from previous years. The example below from the German curriculum illustrates how the theme of culture grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning as they progress through the grades.

 

5

7

9

11

Big Ideas

Each culture has traditions and ways of celebrating.

Knowing about diverse communities helps us develop cultural awareness.

Acquiring a new language allows us to explore our identity and culture from a new perspective.

Language and culture are interconnected and shape our perspective, identity, and voice.

 

Curricular Competencies

Curricular Competencies are what students should be able to “Do” with their Content knowledge. Language acquisition is very process-driven, and “Doing” plays an important role. Since the goal is proficiency in using the language rather than learning about the language, more elements are included in the Curricular Competencies column of the German curriculum than in the Content column. Through purposeful communication in class, students develop competencies in listening to understand, communicating effectively, presenting their ideas in German with confidence and fluency, and understanding the connections between language and culture.

Students also build on their application of the Curricular Competencies from year to year. The example below illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

11

Curricular
Competencies

Comprehend simple stories

Comprehend meaning in stories

Comprehend meaning in stories

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Derive meaning in speech and a variety of other texts and contexts

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Content

Content represents the core knowledge students will have – what they are expected to “Know.” In language acquisition, Content represents the pieces students must have to be able to use the language at a given grade level (i.e., to apply the Curricular Competencies). In each grade, each of the Content learning standards supports multiple Curricular Competencies (the “Do” component of the curriculum).

Students build on their Content knowledge from year to year. Some Content learning standards bridge more than one year because they may take longer to fully acquire or they may support increasingly complex Curricular Competencies. When identical Content learning standards appear across multiple grades, elaborations further clarify how deeply the Content learning standard is expected to be covered at each grade. The examples below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

6

8

10

12

Content

Descriptions of people

Descriptions of people, objects, and personal interests

Activities, situations and events

Needs and emotions

Expression, support, and defense of opinions

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided in many places throughout the curriculum.  They offer additional clarification and support for teachers, including definitions, examples, and information regarding the depth and breadth to which topics should be covered at a given grade. Examples provided in the elaborations are not intended to be comprehensive lists of what must be covered in a given grade; they are simply examples. Elaborations may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching German.

 

Big Idea

Curricular Competency

Content

Grade 8

Creative works are an expression of language and culture.

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

German works of art

Elaborations

Creative works:  representing the experience of the people from whose culture they are drawn (e.g., painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, poetry and prose, filmmaking, musical composition, architecture)

Narrate:
  • use common expressions of time and transitional words to show logical progression.
  • Use present, past and future time frames.

works of art: e.g., creative works in dance, drama, music, or visual arts, with consideration for the ethics of cultural appropriation and plagiarism.

 

Important considerations

Diverse contexts

Throughout British Columbia, students learn German in many contexts. Schools where German is offered are organized in different ways, resources and supports available to teachers and students vary among different schools, and German teachers range from beginning generalists to highly experienced specialists. While these diverse factors may result in variations in instruction, the flexibility of the German curriculum is purposefully designed to support teachers and students in a wide range of contexts.

Language of instruction

It is important that German be used as the language of instruction for the German curriculum. As German is a minority language in British Columbia, opportunities for students to use the language outside the classroom may be limited. Research shows that increasing exposure to and use of the target language is essential to increasing proficiency. Therefore, while it is also understood that students at times may need some discussions or examples in the prevailing language of the school, both teachers and students are encouraged to use German at every opportunity.

Benefits beyond linguistic ability

The German curriculum supports the principle that German language learners gain not only the ability to communicate effectively in German but also experience many other benefits, including:

  • improved overall cognitive development and creative thinking
  • the development of cultural awareness and understanding
  • a deepened understanding of their own identity
  • an enhanced understanding of their first language
  • language-learning strategies that can be transferred to additional languages

Engaging with the German-speaking community

In language education, all aspects of learning are enriched when students engage with members of the target language community. Engagement with German-speaking communities and people can mean different things in different contexts. It may include, for example:

  • inviting community members into the classroom (in person or virtually)
  • making connections with other German classes and schools
  • attending festivals, films, concerts, plays, and other cultural and community events
  • frequenting stores, restaurants, and community centres where German is used
  • interacting with the pre-approved and secured online German-speaking community through blogs, chats, and other forms of social media

Teachers are encouraged to provide a variety of these experiences for their students. Students, particularly in the upper grades, are also encouraged to seek and initiate engagement with German-speaking communities and people, to help build their identity as German speakers and to foster opportunities to continue their acquisition of the German language beyond graduation.

Links to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

The Ministry of Education remains supportive of teachers who wish to make use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as a supporting tool in their German classroom. The Ministry recognizes that the CEFR can be a valuable assessment tool and that a number of language teachers in the province are currently using it with their students and would like to continue to do so.

Working with First Peoples communities

To address First Peoples content and perspectives in the classroom in a way that is accurate and that respectfully reflects First Peoples concepts of teaching and learning, teachers are strongly encouraged to seek the advice and support of members of local First Peoples communities. As First Peoples communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol to gain support for integration of local knowledge and expertise. Permission for the use or translation of cultural materials or practices should be obtained through consultation with individuals, families, and other community members. This authorization should be obtained prior to the use of any educational plans or materials.

To begin discussion about possible instructional and assessment activities, teachers should first contact First Peoples education coordinators, teachers, support workers, and counsellors in their district who will be able to facilitate the identification of local resources and contacts, such as Elders, chiefs, First Nations tribal or band councils, First Peoples cultural centres, First Peoples friendship centres, and Métis or Inuit organizations. In addition, teachers may wish to consult the various Ministry of Education publications available, including the “Planning Your Program” section of the resource Shared Learnings. This resource was developed to help all teachers provide students with knowledge of, and opportunities to share experiences with, First Peoples in B.C. For more information about these documents, consult the Aboriginal Education website: www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/welcome.htm.

Authentic First Peoples texts and resources

In order to present authentic First Peoples content and worldviews, it is important to draw from First Peoples learning and teaching resources. Authentic First Peoples texts and resources are those that:

  • present authentic First Peoples voices (i.e., historical and contemporary texts created by First Peoples or through the substantial contributions of First Peoples)
  • depict themes and issues important to First Peoples cultures (e.g., loss of identity and affirmation of identity, tradition, healing, role of family, importance of Elders, connection with the land, the nature and place of spirituality as an aspect of wisdom, the relationships between individual and community, the importance of oral tradition, the experience of colonization and decolonization)
  • incorporate First Peoples story-telling techniques and features as applicable (e.g., circular structure, repetition, weaving in of spirituality, humour)

Because of the diversity of First Peoples communities in B.C. and Canada and indigenous peoples in the rest of the world, and the need to provide a relevant context for classroom instruction and assessment, it is suggested that resource selection focus primarily on First Peoples texts and resources from the local community wherever possible.

Introduction to Italian

The Italian curriculum presents what students are expected to know, do, and understand in Grades 5 through 12. It provides teachers with a framework for immersing students in learning experiences through which they can gain new perspectives, engage with Italian-speaking communities, and become proficient users of Italian.

Features of the Italian curriculum

Integration of components

The Italian curriculum represents an integrated approach to language acquisition. With this approach, the following components of language acquisition are viewed as interconnected rather than as existing in isolation:

  • Reading, writing, listening, speaking, and interacting – These essential competencies are the foundation of language acquisition. As they rarely exist in isolation in authentic communication contexts, they are integrated throughout the curriculum. Each element of the curriculum supports the simultaneous development of multiple competencies.
  • Grammar – With a focus on the purposeful use of language to communicate meaning, grammatical instruction plays a supportive role.
  • Culture – Language is inextricably bound to culture. Culture is a vehicle for acquiring a deeper understanding of a given language, of others, and of oneself. Authentic communication always takes place in a cultural context, and language acquisition activities in the classroom must therefore be situated within such a context. As students explore the Italian language and the Italian-speaking world, they simultaneously acquire both the language and an understanding of the diversity of Italian culture and the relationships between the two. This contributes to their appreciation of other cultures as well as their own.
  • Language-learning strategies – Language-learning strategies are seen as a vehicle for helping students succeed in their language acquisition journey and are integrated throughout the curriculum.

Flexible teaching and learning

The Italian curriculum allows for instructional flexibility. For example, the curriculum components can be combined in different ways to provide a diverse range of learning opportunities. Within each grade, there are multiple ways to combine Content and Curricular Competencies, in creating lessons, units, and learning experiences to lead students to discovery of the generalizations and principles of the Big Ideas. The curriculum encourages the use of a range of approaches that both support language instruction and acquisition and support students’ learning in a manner best suited to their diverse abilities.

Use of a wide variety of text types

The Italian curriculum encourages the use of a wide variety of text types. “Text” in the Italian curriculum refers to all forms of oral, written, visual, and digital communication.

Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of grade-appropriate text types in their classrooms. Teachers may choose to use authentic (primary source) and/or adapted (translated into Italian) texts with their students to encourage:

  • student comprehension
  • student exposure to target vocabulary and patterns
  • the saliency of high-frequency vocabulary and patterns

Integrating First Peoples content and perspectives

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of First Peoples in British Columbia are reflected in all provincial curricula.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning have been affirmed within First Peoples societies to guide the teaching and learning of provincial curricula. Because these principles of learning represent an attempt to identify common elements in the varied teaching and learning approaches that prevail within particular First Peoples societies, it must be recognized that they do not capture the full reality of the approach used in any single First Peoples society.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning are woven throughout and greatly influence the Italian curriculum. They lend themselves well to language learning as they promote experiential and reflexive learning, as well as self-advocacy and personal responsibility in students. They help create classroom experiences based on the concepts of community, shared learning, and trust, all of which are vital to language acquisition.

Design of the Italian curriculum

The Italian curriculum follows the same format as is used in all other curricular areas and is based on the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Students learn through Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). More information on the curriculum model is available at https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/curriculum/overview.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are generalizations and principles discovered through experiencing the Content and Curricular Competencies of the curriculum – the “Understand” component of the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Big Ideas represent the “aha!” and the “so what?” of the curriculum – the deeper learning.       

From year to year, students discover new Big Ideas and also build on the Big Ideas from previous years. The example below from the Italian curriculum illustrates how the theme of culture grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning as they progress through the grades.

 

5

7

9

11

Big Ideas

Each culture has traditions and ways of celebrating.

Knowing about diverse communities helps us develop cultural awareness.

Acquiring a new language allows us to explore our identity and culture from a new perspective.

Language and culture are interconnected and shape our perspective, identity, and voice.

Curricular Competencies          

Curricular Competencies are what students should be able to “Do” with their Content knowledge. Language acquisition is very process-driven, and “Doing” plays an important role. Since the goal is proficiency in using the language rather than learning about the language, more elements are included in the Curricular Competencies column of the Italian curriculum than in the Content column. Through purposeful communication in class, students develop competencies in listening to understand, communicating effectively, presenting their ideas in Italian with confidence and fluency, and understanding the connections between language and culture.

Students also build on their application of the Curricular Competencies from year to year. The example below illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

11

Curricular
Competencies

Comprehend stories

Comprehend meaning in stories

Comprehend meaning in stories

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Derive meaning in speech and a variety of other texts

Narrate and write stories

Content                   

Content represents the core knowledge students will have – what they are expected to “Know.” In language acquisition, Content represents the pieces students must have to be able to use the language at a given grade level (i.e., to apply the Curricular Competencies). In each grade, each of the Content learning standards supports multiple Curricular Competencies (the “Do” component of the curriculum).

Students build on their Content knowledge from year to year. Some Content learning standards bridge more than one year because they may take longer to fully acquire or they may support increasingly complex Curricular Competencies. When identical Content learning standards appear across multiple grades, elaborations further clarify how deeply the Content learning standard is expected to be covered at each grade. The examples below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning. 

 

5

8

10

12

Content

Simple information and descriptions

People, objects, and locations

Activities, situations, and events

Complex questions and opinions

Needs and emotions

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided in many places throughout the curriculum. They offer additional clarification and support for teachers, including definitions, examples, and information regarding the depth and breadth to which topics should be covered at a given grade. Examples provided in the elaborations are not intended to be comprehensive lists of what must be covered in a given grade; they are simply examples. Elaborations may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching Italian.

 

Big Idea

Curricular Competency

Content

      Grade 8

Creative works are an expression of language and culture.

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Italian creative works

Elaborations

Creative works:   representing the experience of the people from whose culture they are drawn (e.g., painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, poetry and prose, filmmaking, musical composition, architecture)

Narrate:
  • use common expressions of time and transitional words to show logical progression.
  • Use present, past and future time frames.

creative works: e.g., painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, drama, music, or visual arts, with consideration for the ethics of cultural appropriation and plagiarism.

Important considerations

Diverse contexts

Throughout British Columbia, students learn Italian in many contexts. Schools where Italian is offered are organized in different ways, resources and supports available to teachers and students vary among different schools, and Italian teachers range from beginning generalists to highly experienced specialists. While these diverse factors may result in variations in instruction, the flexibility of the Italian curriculum is purposefully designed to support teachers and students in a wide range of contexts.

Language of instruction

It is important that Italian be used as the language of instruction for the Italian curriculum. As Italian is a minority language in British Columbia, opportunities for students to use the language outside the classroom may be limited. Research shows that increasing exposure to and use of the target language is essential to increasing proficiency. Therefore, while it is also understood that students at times may need some discussions or examples in the prevailing language of the school, both teachers and students are encouraged to use Italian at every opportunity.

Benefits beyond linguistic ability      

The Italian curriculum supports the principle that Italian language learners gain not only the ability to communicate effectively in Italian but also experience many other benefits, including:

  • improved overall cognitive development and creative thinking
  • the development of cultural awareness and understanding
  • a deepened understanding of their own identity
  • an enhanced understanding of their first language
  • language-learning strategies that can be transferred to additional languages

Engaging with the Italian-speaking community

In language education, all aspects of learning are enriched when students engage with members of the target language community. Engagement with Italian-speaking communities and people can mean different things in different contexts. It may include, for example:

  • inviting community members into the classroom (in person or virtually)
  • making connections with other Italian classes and schools
  • attending festivals, films, concerts, plays, and other cultural and community events
  • frequenting stores, restaurants, and community centres where Italian is used
  • interacting with the pre-approved and secured online Italian-speaking community through blogs, chats, and other forms of social media

Teachers are encouraged to provide a variety of these experiences for their students. Students, particularly in the upper grades, are also encouraged to seek and initiate engagement with Italian-speaking communities and people, to help build their identity as Italian speakers and to foster opportunities to continue their acquisition of the Italian language beyond graduation.

Links to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

The Ministry of Education remains supportive of teachers who wish to make use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as a supporting tool in their Italian classroom. The Ministry recognizes that the CEFR can be a valuable assessment tool and that a number of language teachers in the province are currently using it with their students and would like to continue to do so.

Working with First Peoples communities

To address First Peoples content and perspectives in the classroom in a way that is accurate and that respectfully reflects First Peoples concepts of teaching and learning, teachers are strongly encouraged to seek the advice and support of members of local First Peoples communities. As First Peoples communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol to gain support for integration of local knowledge and expertise. Permission for the use or translation of cultural materials or practices should be obtained through consultation with individuals, families, and other community members. This authorization should be obtained prior to the use of any educational plans or materials.

To begin discussion about possible instructional and assessment activities, teachers should first contact First Peoples education coordinators, teachers, support workers, and counsellors in their district who will be able to facilitate the identification of local resources and contacts, such as Elders, chiefs, First Nations tribal or band councils, First Peoples cultural centres, First Peoples friendship centres, and Métis or Inuit organizations. In addition, teachers may wish to consult the various Ministry of Education publications available, including the “Planning Your Program” section of the resource Shared Learnings. This resource was developed to help all teachers provide students with knowledge of, and opportunities to share experiences with, First Peoples in B.C. For more information about these documents, consult the Aboriginal Education website: www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/welcome.htm.

Authentic First Peoples texts and resources

In order to present authentic First Peoples content and worldviews, it is important to draw from First Peoples learning and teaching resources. Authentic First Peoples texts and resources are those that:

  • present authentic First Peoples voices (i.e., historical and contemporary texts created by First Peoples or through the substantial contributions of First Peoples)
  • depict themes and issues important to First Peoples cultures (e.g., loss of identity and affirmation of identity, tradition, healing, role of family, importance of Elders, connection with the land, the nature and place of spirituality as an aspect of wisdom, the relationships between individual and community, the importance of oral tradition, the experience of colonization and decolonization)
  • incorporate First Peoples story-telling techniques and features as applicable (e.g., circular structure, repetition, weaving in of spirituality, humour)

Because of the diversity of First Peoples communities in B.C. and Canada and indigenous peoples in the rest of the world, and the need to provide a relevant context for classroom instruction and assessment, it is suggested that resource selection focus primarily on First Peoples texts and resources from the local community wherever possible.

Introduction to Korean

The Korean curriculum presents what students are expected to know, do, and understand in Grades 5 through 12. It provides teachers with a framework for immersing students in learning experiences through which they can gain new perspectives, engage with Korean-speaking communities, and become proficient users of Korean.

Features of the Korean curriculum

Integration of components

The Korean curriculum represents an integrated approach to language acquisition. With this approach, the following components of language acquisition are viewed as interconnected rather than as existing in isolation:

  • Reading, writing, listening, speaking, and interacting – These essential competencies are the foundation of language acquisition. As they rarely exist in isolation in authentic communication contexts, they are integrated throughout the curriculum. Each element of the curriculum supports the simultaneous development of multiple competencies.
  • Grammar – With a focus on the purposeful use of language to communicate meaning, grammatical instruction plays a supportive role.
  • Culture – Language is inextricably bound to culture. Culture is a vehicle for acquiring a deeper understanding of a given language, of others, and of oneself. Authentic communication always takes place in a cultural context, and language acquisition activities in the classroom must therefore be situated within such a context. As students explore the Korean language and the Korean-speaking world, they simultaneously acquire both the language and an understanding of the diversity of Korean culture and the relationships between the two. This contributes to their appreciation of other cultures as well as their own.
  • Language-learning strategies – Language-learning strategies are seen as a vehicle for helping students succeed in their language acquisition journey and are integrated throughout the curriculum.

Flexible teaching and learning

The Korean curriculum allows for instructional flexibility. For example, the curriculum components can be combined in different ways to provide a diverse range of learning opportunities. Within each grade, there are multiple ways to combine Content and Curricular Competencies, in creating lessons, units, and learning experiences to lead students to discovery of the generalizations and principles of the Big Ideas. The curriculum encourages the use of a range of approaches that both support language instruction and acquisition and support students’ learning in a manner best suited to their diverse abilities.

Use of a wide variety of text types

The Korean curriculum encourages the use of a wide variety of text types. “Text” in the Korean curriculum refers to all forms of oral, written, visual, and digital communication.

Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of grade-appropriate text types in their classrooms. Teachers may choose to use authentic (primary source) and/or adapted (translated into Korean) texts with their students to encourage:

  • student comprehension  
  • student exposure to target vocabulary and patterns  
  • the saliency of high-frequency vocabulary and patterns  

Integrating First Peoples content and perspectives

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of First Peoples in British Columbia are reflected in all provincial curricula.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning have been affirmed within First Peoples societies to guide the teaching and learning of provincial curricula. Because these principles of learning represent an attempt to identify common elements in the varied teaching and learning approaches that prevail within particular First Peoples societies, it must be recognized that they do not capture the full reality of the approach used in any single First Peoples society.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning are woven throughout and greatly influence the Korean curriculum. They lend themselves well to language learning, as they promote experiential and reflexive learning, as well as self-advocacy and personal responsibility in students. They help create classroom experiences based on the concepts of community, shared learning, and trust, all of which are vital to language acquisition.

Design of the Korean curriculum

The Korean curriculum follows the same format as is used in all other curricular areas and is based on the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Students learn through Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). More information on the curriculum model is available at https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/curriculum/overview.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are generalizations and principles discovered through experiencing the Content and Curricular Competencies of the curriculum – the “Understand” component of the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Big Ideas represent the “aha!” and the “so what?” of the curriculum – the deeper learning.

From year to year, students discover new Big Ideas and also build on the Big Ideas from previous years. The example from the Korean curriculum below illustrates how the theme of culture grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning as they progress through the grades.

 

5

7

9

11

Big Ideas

Each culture has traditions and ways of celebrating.

Knowing about diverse communities helps us develop cultural awareness.

Acquiring a new language allows us to explore our identity and culture from a new perspective.

Language and culture are interconnected and shape our perspective, identity, and voice.

 

Curricular Competencies

Curricular Competencies are what students should be able to “Do” with their Content knowledge. Language acquisition is very process-driven, and “Doing” plays an important role. Since the goal is proficiency in using the language rather than learning about the language, more elements are included in the Curricular Competencies column of the Korean curriculum than in the Content column. Through purposeful communication in class, sstudents develop competencies in listening to understand, communicating effectively, presenting their ideas in Korean with confidence and fluency, and understanding the connections between language and culture.
   
Students also build on their application of the Curricular Competencies from year to year. The example below illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

11

Curricular
Competencies

Comprehend simple stories

Comprehend meaning in stories

Comprehend meaning in stories

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Analyze cultural points of view in texts

 

Content  

Content represents the core knowledge students will have – what they are expected to “Know.” In language acquisition, Content represents the pieces students must have to be able to use the language at a given grade level (i.e., to apply the Curricular Competencies). In each grade, each of the Content learning standards supports multiple Curricular Competencies (the “Do” component of the curriculum).

Students build on their Content knowledge from year to year. Some Content learning standards bridge more than one year because they may take longer to fully acquire or they may support increasingly complex Curricular Competencies. When identical Content learning standards appear across multiple grades, elaborations further clarify how deeply the Content learning standard is expected to be covered at each grade. The examples below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

11

Content

Simple questions and descriptions

Types of questions

Types of questions

Complex questions 

      

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided in many places throughout the curriculum. They offer additional clarification and support for teachers, including definitions, examples, and information regarding the depth and breadth to which topics should be covered at a given grade. Examples provided in the elaborations are not intended to be comprehensive lists of what must be covered in a given grade; they are simply examples. Elaborations may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching Korean.

 

Big Idea

Curricular Competency

Content

Grade 8

Creative works are an expression of language and culture.

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Korean works of art

Elaborations

Creative works: representing the experience of the people from whose culture they are drawn (e.g., painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, poetry and prose, filmmaking, musical composition, architecture)

Narrate:

  • use common expressions of time and transitional words to show logical progression.
  • Use present, past and future time frames.

works of art: e.g., creative works in dance, drama, music, or visual arts, with consideration for the ethics of cultural appropriation and plagiarism

 

Important considerations

Diverse contexts

Throughout British Columbia, students learn Korean in many contexts. Schools where Korean is offered are organized in different ways, resources and support available to teachers and students vary among different schools, and Korean teachers range from beginning generalists to highly experienced specialists. While these diverse factors may result in variations in instruction, the flexibility of the Korean curriculum is purposefully designed to support teachers and students in a wide range of contexts.

Language of instruction

It is important that Korean be used as the language of instruction for the Korean curriculum. As Korean is a minority language in British Columbia, opportunities for students to use the language outside the classroom may be limited. Research shows that increasing exposure to and use of the target language is essential to increasing proficiency. Therefore, while it is also understood that students at times may need some discussions or examples in the prevailing language of the school, both teachers and students are encouraged to use Korean at every opportunity.

Benefits beyond linguistic ability 

The Korean curriculum supports the principle that Korean language learners gain not only the ability to communicate effectively in Korean but also experience many other benefits, including:

  • improved overall cognitive development and creative thinking
  • the development of cultural awareness and understanding
  • a deepened understanding of their own identity
  • an enhanced understanding of their first language
  • language-learning strategies that can be transferred to additional languages

Engaging with the Korean-speaking community

In language education, all aspects of learning are enriched when students engage with members of the target language community. Engagement with Korean-speaking communities and people can mean different things in different contexts. It may include, for example:

  • inviting community members into the classroom (in person or virtually)
  • making connections with other Korean classes and schools
  • attending festivals, films, concerts, plays, and other cultural and community events
  • frequenting stores, restaurants, and community centres where Korean is used
  • interacting with the pre-approved and secured online Korean-speaking community through blogs, chats, and other forms of social media

Teachers are encouraged to provide a variety of these experiences for their students. Students, particularly in the upper grades, are also encouraged to seek and initiate engagement with Korean-speaking communities and people, to help build their identity as Korean speakers and to foster opportunities to continue their acquisition of the Korean language beyond graduation.

Links to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

The Ministry of Education remains supportive of teachers who wish to make use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as a supporting tool in their Korean classroom. The Ministry recognizes that the CEFR can be a valuable assessment tool and that a number of language teachers in the province are currently using it with their students and would like to continue to do so.

Working with First Peoples communities

To address First Peoples content and perspectives in the classroom in a way that is accurate and that respectfully reflects First Peoples concepts of teaching and learning, teachers are strongly encouraged to seek the advice and support of members of local First Peoples communities. As First Peoples communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol to gain support for integration of local knowledge and expertise. Permission for the use or translation of cultural materials or practices should be obtained through consultation with individuals, families, and other community members. This authorization should be obtained prior to the use of any educational plans or materials.

To begin discussion about possible instructional and assessment activities, teachers should first contact First Peoples education coordinators, teachers, support workers, and counsellors in their district who will be able to facilitate the identification of local resources and contacts, such as Elders, chiefs, First Nations tribal or band councils, First Peoples cultural centres, First Peoples friendship centres, and Métis or Inuit organizations. In addition, teachers may wish to consult the various Ministry of Education publications available, including the “Planning Your Program” section of the resource Shared Learnings. This resource was developed to help all teachers provide students with knowledge of, and opportunities to share experiences with, First Peoples in B.C. For more information about these documents, consult the Aboriginal Education website: www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/welcome.htm.

Authentic First Peoples texts and resources

In order to present authentic First Peoples content and worldviews, it is important to draw from First Peoples learning and teaching resources. Authentic First Peoples texts and resources are those that:

  • present authentic First Peoples voices (i.e., historical and contemporary texts created by First Peoples or through the substantial contributions of First Peoples)
  • depict themes and issues important to First Peoples cultures (e.g., loss of identity and affirmation of identity, tradition, healing, role of family, importance of Elders, connection with the land, the nature and place of spirituality as an aspect of wisdom, the relationships between individual and community, the importance of oral tradition, the experience of colonization and decolonization)
  • incorporate First Peoples story-telling techniques and features as applicable (e.g., circular structure, repetition, weaving in of spirituality, humour)

Because of the diversity of First Peoples communities in B.C. and Canada and indigenous peoples in the rest of the world, and the need to provide a relevant context for classroom instruction and assessment, it is suggested that resource selection focus primarily on First Peoples texts and resources from the local community wherever possible.

Introduction to Japanese

The Japanese curriculum presents what students are expected to know, do, and understand in Grades 5 through 12. It provides teachers with a framework for immersing students in learning experiences through which they can gain new perspectives, engage with Japanese-speaking communities, and become proficient users of Japanese.

Features of the Japanese curriculum

Integration of components

The Japanese curriculum represents an integrated approach to language acquisition. With this approach, the following components of language acquisition are viewed as interconnected rather than as existing in isolation:

  • Reading, writing, listening, speaking, and interacting – These essential competencies are the foundation of language acquisition. As they rarely exist in isolation in authentic communication contexts, they are integrated throughout the curriculum. Each element of the curriculum supports the simultaneous development of multiple competencies.
  • Grammar – With a focus on the purposeful use of language to communicate meaning, grammatical instruction plays a supportive role.
  • Culture – Language is inextricably bound to culture. Culture is a vehicle for acquiring a deeper understanding of a given language, of others, and of oneself. Authentic communication always takes place in a cultural context, and language acquisition activities in the classroom must therefore be situated within such a context. As students explore the Japanese language and the Japanese-speaking world, they simultaneously acquire both the language and an understanding of the diversity of Japanese culture and the relationships between the two. This contributes to their appreciation of other cultures as well as their own.
  • Language-learning strategies – Language-learning strategies are seen as a vehicle for helping students succeed in their language acquisition journey and are integrated throughout the curriculum.

Flexible teaching and learning

The Japanese curriculum allows for instructional flexibility. For example, the curriculum components can be combined in different ways to provide a diverse range of learning opportunities. Within each grade, there are multiple ways to combine Content and Curricular Competencies, in creating lessons, units, and learning experiences to lead students to discovery of the generalizations and principles of the Big Ideas. The curriculum encourages the use of a range of approaches that both support language instruction and acquisition and support students’ learning in a manner best suited to their diverse abilities.

Use of a wide variety of text types

The Japanese curriculum encourages the use of a wide variety of text types. “Text” in the Japanese curriculum refers to all forms of oral, written, visual, and digital communication.

Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of grade-appropriate text types in their classrooms. Teachers may choose to use authentic (primary source) and/or adapted (translated into Japanese) texts with their students to encourage:

  • student comprehension
  • student exposure to target vocabulary and patterns
  • the saliency of high-frequency vocabulary and patterns

Integrating First Peoples content and perspectives

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of First Peoples in British Columbia are reflected in all provincial curricula.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning have been affirmed within First Peoples societies to guide the teaching and learning of provincial curricula. Because these principles of learning represent an attempt to identify common elements in the varied teaching and learning approaches that prevail within particular First Peoples societies, it must be recognized that they do not capture the full reality of the approach used in any single First Peoples society.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning are woven throughout and greatly influence the Japanese curriculum. They lend themselves well to language learning, as they promote experiential and reflexive learning, as well as self-advocacy and personal responsibility in students. They help create classroom experiences based on the concepts of community, shared learning, and trust, all of which are vital to language acquisition.

Design of the Japanese curriculum

The Japanese curriculum follows the same format as is used in all other curricular areas and is based on the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Students learn through Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). More information on the curriculum model is available at https://www.curriculum.gov.bc.ca/curriculum/overview.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are generalizations and principles discovered through experiencing the Content and Curricular Competencies of the curriculum — the “Understand” component of the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Big Ideas represent the “aha!” and the “so what?” of the curriculum — the deeper learning.

From year to year, students discover new Big Ideas and also build on the Big Ideas from previous years. The example in the Japanese curriculum below illustrates how the theme of culture grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning as they progress through the grades.

 

5

7

9

11

Big Ideas

Each culture has traditions and ways of celebrating.

Knowing about diverse communities helps us develop cultural awareness.

Acquiring a new language allows us to explore our identity and culture from a new perspective.

Language and culture are interconnected and shape our perspective, identity, and voice.

Curricular Competencies

Curricular Competencies are what students should be able to “Do” with their Content knowledge. Language acquisition is very process-driven, and “Doing” plays an important role. Since the goal is proficiency in using the language rather than learning about the language, more elements are included in the Curricular Competencies column of the Japanese curriculum than in the Content column. Through purposeful communication in class, students develop competencies in listening to understand, communicating effectively, presenting their ideas in Japanese with confidence and fluency, and understanding the connections between language and culture.

Students also build on their application of the Curricular Competencies from year to year. The example below illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

11

Curricular
Competencies

Comprehend simple stories

Comprehend meaning in stories

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Analyze cultural points of view

Content

Content represents the core knowledge students will have – what they are expected to “Know.” In language acquisition, Content represents the pieces students must have to be able to use the language at a given grade level (i.e., to apply the Curricular Competencies). In each grade, each of the Content learning standards supports multiple Curricular Competencies (the “Do” component of the curriculum).

Students build on their Content knowledge from year to year. Some Content learning standards bridge more than one year because they may take longer to fully acquire or they may support increasingly complex Curricular Competencies. When identical Content learning standards appear across multiple grades, elaborations further clarify how deeply the Content learning standard is expected to be covered at each grade. The examples below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

12

Content

Simple questions and descriptions

Types of questions

Descriptions of people

Types of questions

Descriptions of people, objects, and locations

Complex questions

Explanation and justification of opinions and points of view

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided in many places throughout the curriculum. They offer additional clarification and support for teachers, including definitions, examples, and information regarding the depth and breadth to which topics should be covered at a given grade. Examples provided in the elaborations are not intended to be comprehensive lists of what must be covered in a given grade; they are simply examples. Elaborations may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching Japanese.

 

Big Idea

Curricular Competency

Content

      Grade 8

Creative works are an expression of language and culture.

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Japanese works of art

Elaborations

Creative works:   representing the experience of the people from whose culture they are drawn (e.g., painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, poetry and prose, filmmaking, musical composition, architecture)

Narrate:
  • use common expressions of time and transitional words to show logical progression.
  • Use present, past and future time frames.

works of art: e.g., creative works in dance, drama, music, or visual arts, with consideration for the ethics of cultural appropriation and plagiarism.


Important considerations

Diverse contexts

Throughout British Columbia, students learn Japanese in many contexts. Schools where Japanese is offered are organized in different ways, resources and support available to teachers and students vary among different schools, and Japanese teachers range from beginning generalists to highly experienced specialists. While these diverse factors may result in variations in instruction, the flexibility of the Japanese curriculum is purposefully designed to support teachers and students in a wide range of contexts.

Language of instruction

It is important that Japanese be used as the language of instruction for the Japanese curriculum. As Japanese is a minority language in British Columbia, opportunities for students to use the language outside the classroom may be limited. Research shows that increasing exposure to and use of the target language is essential to increasing proficiency. Therefore, while it is also understood that students at times may need some discussions or examples in the prevailing language of the school, both teachers and students are encouraged to use Japanese at every opportunity.

Benefits beyond linguistic ability

The Japanese curriculum supports the principle that Japanese language learners gain not only the ability to communicate effectively in Japanese but also experience many other benefits, including:

  • improved overall cognitive development and creative thinking
  • the development of cultural awareness and understanding
  • a deepened understanding of their own identity
  • an enhanced understanding of their first language
  • language-learning strategies that can be transferred to additional languages

Engaging with the Japanese-speaking community

In language education, all aspects of learning are enriched when students engage with members of the target language community. Engagement with Japanese-speaking communities and people can mean different things in different contexts. It may include, for example:

  • inviting community members into the classroom (in person or virtually)
  • making connections with other Japanese classes and schools
  • attending festivals, films, concerts, plays, and other cultural and community events
  • frequenting stores, restaurants, and community centres where Japanese is used
  • interacting with the pre-approved and secured online Japanese-speaking community through blogs, chats, and other forms of social media

Teachers are encouraged to provide a variety of these experiences for their students. Students, particularly in the upper grades, are also encouraged to seek and initiate engagement with Japanese-speaking communities and people, to help build their identity as Japanese speakers and to foster opportunities to continue their acquisition of the Japanese language beyond graduation.

Links to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

The Ministry of Education remains supportive of teachers who wish to make use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as a supporting tool in their Japanese classroom. The Ministry recognizes that the CEFR can be a valuable assessment tool and that a number of language teachers in the province are currently using it with their students and would like to continue to do so.

Working with First Peoples communities

To address First Peoples content and perspectives in the classroom in a way that is accurate and that respectfully reflects First Peoples concepts of teaching and learning, teachers are strongly encouraged to seek the advice and support of members of local First Peoples communities. As First Peoples communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol to gain support for integration of local knowledge and expertise. Permission for the use or translation of cultural materials or practices should be obtained through consultation with individuals, families, and other community members. This authorization should be obtained prior to the use of any educational plans or materials.

To begin discussion about possible instructional and assessment activities, teachers should first contact First Peoples education coordinators, teachers, support workers, and counsellors in their district who will be able to facilitate the identification of local resources and contacts, such as Elders, chiefs, First Nations tribal or band councils, First Peoples cultural centres, First Peoples friendship centres, and Métis or Inuit organizations. In addition, teachers may wish to consult the various Ministry of Education publications available, including the “Planning Your Program” section of the resource Shared Learnings. This resource was developed to help all teachers provide students with knowledge of, and opportunities to share experiences with, First Peoples in B.C. For more information about these documents, consult the Aboriginal Education website: www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/welcome.htm.

Authentic First Peoples texts and resources

In order to present authentic First Peoples content and worldviews, it is important to draw from First Peoples learning and teaching resources. Authentic First Peoples texts and resources are those that:

  • present authentic First Peoples voices (i.e., historical and contemporary texts created by First Peoples or through the substantial contributions of First Peoples)
  • depict themes and issues important to First Peoples cultures (e.g., loss of identity and affirmation of identity, tradition, healing, role of family, importance of Elders, connection with the land, the nature and place of spirituality as an aspect of wisdom, the relationships between individual and community, the importance of oral tradition, the experience of colonization and decolonization)
  • incorporate First Peoples story-telling techniques and features as applicable (e.g., circular structure, repetition, weaving in of spirituality, humour)

Because of the diversity of First Peoples communities in B.C. and Canada and indigenous peoples in the rest of the world, and the need to provide a relevant context for classroom instruction and assessment, it is suggested that resource selection focus primarily on First Peoples texts and resources from the local community wherever possible.

Introduction to Punjabi

The Punjabi curriculum presents what students are expected to know, do, and understand in Grades 5 through 12. It provides teachers with a framework for immersing students in learning experiences through which they can gain perspectives, engage with Punjabi-speaking communities, and become proficient users of Punjabi.

Features of the Punjabi curriculum

Integration of components

The Punjabi curriculum represents an integrated approach to language acquisition. With this approach, the following components of language acquisition are viewed as interconnected rather than as existing in isolation:

  • Reading, writing, listening, speaking, and interacting – These essential competencies are the foundation of language acquisition. As they rarely exist in isolation in authentic communication contexts, they are integrated throughout the curriculum. Each element of the curriculum supports the simultaneous development of multiple competencies.
  • Grammar – With a focus on the purposeful use of language to communicate meaning, grammatical instruction plays a supportive role.
  • Culture – Language is inextricably bound to culture. Culture is a vehicle for acquiring a deeper understanding of a given language, of others, and of oneself. Authentic communication always takes place in a cultural context, and language acquisition activities in the classroom must therefore be situated within such a context. As students explore the Punjabi language and the Punjabi-speaking world, they simultaneously acquire both the language and an understanding of the diversity of Punjabi culture and the relationships between the two. This contributes to their appreciation of other cultures as well as their own.
  • Language-learning strategies – Language-learning strategies are seen as a vehicle for helping students succeed in their language acquisition journey and are integrated throughout the curriculum.

Flexible teaching and learning

The Punjabi curriculum allows for instructional flexibility. For example, the curriculum components can be combined in different ways to provide a diverse range of learning opportunities. Within each grade, there are multiple ways to combine Content and Curricular Competencies in creating lessons, units, and learning experiences to lead students to discovery of the generalizations and principles of the Big Ideas. The curriculum encourages the use of a range of approaches that both support language instruction and acquisition and support students’ learning in a manner best suited to their diverse abilities.

Use of a wide variety of text types

The Punjabi curriculum encourages the use of a wide variety of text types. “Text” in the Punjabi curriculum refers to all forms of oral, written, visual, and digital communication.

Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of grade-appropriate text types in their classrooms. Teachers may choose to use authentic (primary source) and/or adapted (translated into Punjabi) texts with their students to encourage:

  • student comprehension
  • student exposure to target vocabulary and patterns
  • the saliency of high-frequency vocabulary and patterns

Integrating First Peoples content and perspectives

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of First Peoples in British Columbia are reflected in all provincial curricula.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning have been affirmed within First Peoples societies to guide the teaching and learning of provincial curricula. Because these principles of learning represent an attempt to identify common elements in the varied teaching and learning approaches that prevail within particular First Peoples societies, it must be recognized that they do not capture the full reality of the approach used in any single First Peoples society.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning are woven throughout and greatly influence the Punjabi curriculum. They lend themselves well to language learning, as they promote experiential and reflexive learning, as well as self-advocacy and personal responsibility in students. They help create classroom experiences based on the concepts of community, shared learning, and trust, all of which are vital to language acquisition.

Design of the Punjabi curriculum

The Punjabi curriculum follows the same format as is used in all other curricular areas and is based on the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Students learn through Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). More information on the curriculum model is available at https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/curriculum/overview 

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are generalizations and principles discovered through experiencing the Content and Curricular Competencies of the curriculum – the “Understand” component of the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Big Ideas represent the “aha!” and the “so what?” of the curriculum – the deeper learning.

From year to year, students discover new Big Ideas and also build on the Big Ideas from previous years. The example below from the Punjabi curriculum illustrates how the theme of culture grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning as they progress through the grades.

 

5

7

9

11

Big Ideas

Each culture has traditions and ways of celebrating.

Knowing about diverse communities helps us develop cultural awareness.

Acquiring a new language allows us to explore our identity and culture from a new perspective.

Language and culture are interconnected and shape our perspective, identity, and voice.

Curricular Competencies

Curricular Competencies are what students should be able to “Do” with their Content knowledge. Language acquisition is very process-driven, and “Doing” plays an important role. Since the goal is proficiency in using the language rather than learning about the language, more elements are included in the Curricular Competencies column of the Punjabi curriculum than in the Content column. Through purposeful communication in class, students develop competencies in listening to understand, communicating effectively, presenting their ideas in Punjabi with confidence and fluency, and understanding the connections between language and culture.

Students also build on their application of the Curricular Competencies from year to year. The example below illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

11

Curricular
Competencies

Comprehend simple stories

Comprehend meaning in stories

Comprehend meaning in stories

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Analyze cultural points of view in texts

Content

Content represents the core knowledge students will have – what they are expected to “Know.” In language acquisition, Content represents the pieces students must have to be able to use the language at a given grade level (i.e., to apply the Curricular Competencies). In each grade, each of the Content learning standards supports multiple Curricular Competencies (the “Do” component of the curriculum).

Students build on their Content knowledge from year to year. Some Content learning standards bridge more than one year because they may take longer to fully acquire or they may support increasingly complex Curricular Competencies. When identical Content learning standards appear across multiple grades, elaborations further clarify how deeply the Content learning standard is expected to be covered at each grade. The examples below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

12

Content

Simple questions and descriptions

Types of questions

Descriptions of people and objects

Types of questions

Descriptions of people, objects, and locations

Complex questions

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided in many places throughout the curriculum. They offer additional clarification and support for teachers, including definitions, examples, and information regarding the depth and breadth to which topics should be covered at a given grade. Examples provided in the elaborations are not intended to be comprehensive lists of what must be covered in a given grade; they are simply examples. Elaborations may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching Punjabi.

 

Big Idea

Curricular Competency

Content

Grade 8

Creative works are an expression of language and culture.

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Punjabi works of art

Elaborations 

Creative works: representing the experience of the people from whose culture they are drawn (e.g., painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, poetry and prose, filmmaking, musical composition, architecture)

Narrate:

  • use common expressions of time and transitional words to show logical progression.
  • Use present, past and future time frames.

works of art: e.g., creative works in dance, drama, music, or visual arts, with consideration for the ethics of cultural appropriation and plagiarism

Important considerations

Diverse contexts

Throughout British Columbia, students learn Punjabi in many contexts. Schools where Punjabi is offered are organized in different ways, resources and support available to teachers and students vary among different schools, and Punjabi teachers range from beginning generalists to highly experienced specialists. Although these diverse factors may result in variations in instruction, the flexibility of the Punjabi curriculum is purposefully designed to support teachers and students in a wide range of contexts.

Language of instruction

It is important that Punjabi be used as the language of instruction for the Punjabi curriculum. As Punjabi is a minority language in British Columbia, opportunities for students to use the language outside the classroom may be limited. Research shows that increasing exposure to and use of the target language is essential to increasing proficiency. Therefore, while it is also understood that students at times may need some discussions or examples in the prevailing language of the school, both teachers and students are encouraged to use Punjabi at every opportunity.

Benefits beyond linguistic ability

The Punjabi curriculum supports the principle that Punjabi language learners gain not only the ability to communicate effectively in Punjabi but also experience many other benefits, include:

  • improved overall cognitive development and creative thinking
  • the development of cultural awareness and understanding
  • a deepened understanding of their own identity
  • an enhanced understanding of their first language
  • language-learning strategies that can be transferred to additional languages

Engaging with the Punjabi-speaking community

In language education, all aspects of learning are enriched when students engage with members of the target language community. Engagement with Punjabi-speaking communities and people can mean different things in different contexts. It may include, for example:

  • inviting community members into the classroom (in person or virtually)
  • making connections with other Punjabi classes and schools
  • attending festivals, films, concerts, plays, and other cultural and community events
  • frequenting stores, restaurants, and community centres where Punjabi is used
  • interacting with the pre-approved and secured online Punjabi-speaking community through blogs, chats, and other forms of social media.

Teachers are encouraged to provide a variety of these experiences for their students. Students, particularly in the upper grades, are also encouraged to seek and initiate engagement with Punjabi-speaking communities and people, to help build their identity as Punjabi speakers and to foster opportunities to continue their acquisition of the Punjabi language beyond graduation.

Links to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

The Ministry of Education remains supportive of teachers who wish to make use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as a supporting tool in their Punjabi language classroom. The Ministry recognizes that the CEFR can be a valuable assessment tool and that a number of language teachers in the province are currently using it with their students and would like to continue to do so.

Working with First Peoples communities

To address First Peoples content and perspectives in the classroom in a way that is accurate and that respectfully reflects First Peoples concepts of teaching and learning, teachers are strongly encouraged to seek the advice and support of members of local First Peoples communities. As First Peoples communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol to gain support for integration of local knowledge and expertise. Permission for the use or translation of cultural materials or practices should be obtained through consultation with individuals, families, and other community members. This authorization should be obtained prior to the use of any educational plans or materials.

To begin discussion about possible instructional and assessment activities, teachers should first contact First Peoples education coordinators, teachers, support workers, and counsellors in their district who will be able to facilitate the identification of local resources and contacts, such as Elders, chiefs, First Nations tribal or band councils, First Peoples cultural centres, First Peoples friendship centres, and Métis or Inuit organizations. In addition, teachers may wish to consult the various Ministry of Education publications available, including the “Planning Your Program” section of the resource Shared Learnings. This resource was developed to help all teachers provide students with knowledge of, and opportunities to share experiences with, First Peoples in B.C. For more information about these documents, consult the Aboriginal Education website: www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/welcome.htm.

Authentic First Peoples texts and resources

In order to present authentic First Peoples content and worldviews, it is important to draw from First Peoples learning and teaching resources. Authentic First Peoples texts and resources are those that:

  • present authentic First Peoples voices (i.e., historical and contemporary texts created by First Peoples or through the substantial contributions of First Peoples)
  • depict themes and issues important to First Peoples cultures (e.g., loss of identity and affirmation of identity, tradition, healing, role of family, importance of Elders, connection with the land, the nature and place of spirituality as an aspect of wisdom, the relationships between individual and community, the importance of oral tradition, the experience of colonization and decolonization)
  • incorporate First Peoples story-telling techniques and features as applicable (e.g., circular structure, repetition, weaving in of spirituality, humour)

Because of the diversity of First Peoples communities in B.C. and Canada and indigenous peoples in the rest of the world, and the need to provide a relevant context for classroom instruction and assessment, it is suggested that resource selection focus primarily on First Peoples texts and resources from the local community wherever possible.

Introduction to Mandarin

The Mandarin curriculum presents what students are expected to know, do, and understand in Grades 5 through 12. It provides teachers with a framework for immersing students in learning experiences through which they can gain new perspectives, engage with Mandarin-speaking communities, and become proficient users of Mandarin.

Features of the Mandarin curriculum

Integration of components

The Mandarin curriculum represents an integrated approach to language acquisition. With this approach, the following components of language acquisition are viewed as interconnected rather than as existing in isolation:

  • Reading, writing, listening, speaking, and interacting – These essential competencies are the foundation of language acquisition. As they rarely exist in isolation in authentic communication contexts, they are integrated throughout the curriculum. Each element of the curriculum supports the simultaneous development of multiple competencies.
  • Grammar – With a focus on the purposeful use of language to communicate meaning, grammatical instruction plays a supportive role.
  • Culture – Language is inextricably bound to culture. Culture is a vehicle for acquiring a deeper understanding of a given language, of others, and of oneself. Authentic communication always takes place in a cultural context, and language acquisition activities in the classroom must therefore be situated within such a context. As students explore the Mandarin language and the Mandarin-speaking world, they simultaneously acquire both the language and an understanding of the diversity of Chinese culture and the relationships between the two. This contributes to their appreciation of other cultures as well as their own.
  • Language-learning strategies – Language-learning strategies are seen as a vehicle for helping students succeed in their language acquisition journey and are integrated throughout the curriculum.

Flexible teaching and learning

The Mandarin curriculum allows for instructional flexibility. For example, the curriculum components can be combined in different ways to provide a diverse range of learning opportunities. Within each grade, there are multiple ways to combine Content and Curricular Competencies, in creating lessons, units, and learning experiences to lead students to discovery of the generalizations and principles of the Big Ideas. The curriculum encourages the use of a range of approaches that both support language instruction and acquisition and support students’ learning in a manner best suited to their diverse abilities.

Use of a wide variety of text types

The Mandarin curriculum encourages the use of a wide variety of text types. “Text” in the Mandarin curriculum refers to all forms of oral, written, visual, and digital communication.

Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of grade-appropriate text types in their classrooms. Teachers may choose to use authentic (primary source) and/or adapted (translated into Mandarin) texts with their students to encourage:

  • student comprehension
  • student exposure to target vocabulary and patterns
  • the saliency of high-frequency vocabulary and patterns

Integrating First Peoples content and perspectives

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of First Peoples in British Columbia are reflected in all provincial curricula.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning have been affirmed within First Peoples societies to guide the teaching and learning of provincial curricula. Because these principles of learning represent an attempt to identify common elements in the varied teaching and learning approaches that prevail within particular First Peoples societies, it must be recognized that they do not capture the full reality of the approach used in any single First Peoples society.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning are woven throughout and greatly influence the Mandarin curriculum. They lend themselves well to language learning, as they promote experiential and reflexive learning, as well as self-advocacy and personal responsibility in students. They help create classroom experiences based on the concepts of community, shared learning, and trust, all of which are vital to language acquisition.

Design of the Mandarin curriculum

The Mandarin curriculum follows the same format as is used in all other curricular areas and is based on the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Students learn through Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). More information on the curriculum model is available at https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/curriculum/overview.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are generalizations and principles discovered through experiencing the Content and Curricular Competencies of the curriculum – the “Understand” component of the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Big Ideas represent the “aha!” and the “so what?” of the curriculum – the deeper learning.

From year to year, students discover new Big Ideas and also build on the Big Ideas from previous years. The example below from the Mandarin curriculum illustrates how the theme of culture grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning as they progress through the grades.

 

5

7

9

11

Big Ideas

Each culture has traditions and ways of celebrating.

Knowing about diverse communities helps us develop cultural awareness.

Acquiring a new language allows us to explore our identity and culture from a new perspective.

Language and culture are interconnected and shape our perspective, identity, and voice.

 

Curricular Competencies

Curricular Competencies are what students should be able to “Do” with their Content knowledge. Language acquisition is very process-driven, and “Doing” plays an important role. Since the goal is proficiency in using the language rather than learning about the language, more elements are included in the Curricular Competencies column of the Mandarin curriculum than in the Content column. Through purposeful communication in class, students develop competencies in listening to understand, communicating effectively, presenting their ideas in Mandarin with confidence and fluency, and understanding the connections between language and culture.

Students also build on their application of the Curricular Competencies from year to year. The example below illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

11

Curricular
Competencies

Comprehend simple stories

Comprehend meaning in stories

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Analyze cultural points of view in texts

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

 

Content

Content represents the core knowledge students will have – what they are expected to “Know.” In language acquisition, Content represents the pieces students must have to be able to use the language at a given grade level (i.e., to apply the Curricular Competencies). In each grade, each of the Content learning standards supports multiple Curricular Competencies (the “Do” component of the curriculum).

Students build on their Content knowledge from year to year. Some Content learning standards bridge more than one year because they may take longer to fully acquire or they may support increasingly complex Curricular Competencies. When identical Content learning standards appear across multiple grades, elaborations further clarify how deeply the Content learning standard is expected to be covered at each grade. The examples below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

6

8

11

Content

Simple questions and descriptions

Types of questions

Types of questions

Complex questions

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided in many places throughout the curriculum. They offer additional clarification and support for teachers, including definitions, examples, and information regarding the depth and breadth to which topics should be covered at a given grade. Examples provided in the elaborations are not intended to be comprehensive lists of what must be covered in a given grade; they are simply examples. Elaborations may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching Mandarin.

 

Big Idea

Curricular Competency

Content

Grade 8

Creative works are an expression of language and culture.

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Chinese works of art

Elaborations

Creative works:   representing the experience of the people from whose culture they are drawn (e.g., painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, poetry and prose, filmmaking, musical composition, architecture)

Narrate:
  • use common expressions of time and transitional words to show logical progression.
  • Use present, past and future time frames.

works of art: e.g., creative works in dance, drama, music, or visual arts, with consideration for the ethics of cultural appropriation and plagiarism.

 

Important considerations

Diverse contexts

Throughout British Columbia, students learn Mandarin in many contexts. Schools where Mandarin is offered are organized in different ways, resources and support available to teachers and students vary among different schools, and Mandarin teachers range from beginning generalists to highly experienced specialists. While these diverse factors may result in variations in instruction, the flexibility of the Mandarin curriculum is purposefully designed to support teachers and students in a wide range of contexts.

Language of instruction

It is important that Mandarin be used as the language of instruction for the Mandarin curriculum. As Mandarin is a minority language in British Columbia, opportunities for students to use the language outside the classroom may be limited. Research shows that increasing exposure to and use of the target language is essential to increasing proficiency. Therefore, while it is also understood that students at times may need some discussions or examples in the prevailing language of the school, both teachers and students are encouraged to use Mandarin at every opportunity.

Benefits beyond linguistic ability

The Mandarin curriculum supports the principle that Mandarin language learners gain not only the ability to communicate effectively in Mandarin but also experience many other benefits, including:

  • improved overall cognitive development and creative thinking
  • the development of cultural awareness and understanding
  • a deepened understanding of their own identity
  • an enhanced understanding of their first language
  • language-learning strategies that can be transferred to additional languages

Engaging with the Mandarin-speaking and Chinese communities

In language education, all aspects of learning are enriched when students engage with members of the target language community. Engagement with Mandarin-speaking and Chinese communities and people can mean different things in different contexts. It may include, for example:

  • inviting community members into the classroom (in person or virtually)
  • making connections with other Mandarin classes and schools
  • attending festivals, films, concerts, plays, and other cultural and community events
  • frequenting stores, restaurants, and community centres where Mandarin is used
  • interacting with the pre-approved and secured online Mandarin-speaking community through blogs, chats, and other forms of social media

Teachers are encouraged to provide a variety of these experiences for their students. Students, particularly in the upper grades, are also encouraged to seek and initiate engagement with Mandarin-speaking and Chinese communities and people, to help build their identity as Mandarin speakers and to foster opportunities to continue their acquisition of the Mandarin language beyond graduation.

Links to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

The Ministry of Education remains supportive of teachers who wish to make use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as a supporting tool in their Mandarin classroom. The Ministry recognizes that the CEFR can be a valuable assessment tool and that a number of language teachers in the province are currently using it with their students and would like to continue to do so.

Working with First Peoples communities

To address First Peoples content and perspectives in the classroom in a way that is accurate and that respectfully reflects First Peoples concepts of teaching and learning, teachers are strongly encouraged to seek the advice and support of members of local First Peoples communities. As First Peoples communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol to gain support for integration of local knowledge and expertise. Permission for the use or translation of cultural materials or practices should be obtained through consultation with individuals, families, and other community members. This authorization should be obtained prior to the use of any educational plans or materials.

To begin discussion about possible instructional and assessment activities, teachers should first contact First Peoples education coordinators, teachers, support workers, and counsellors in their district who will be able to facilitate the identification of local resources and contacts, such as Elders, chiefs, First Nations tribal or band councils, First Peoples cultural centres, First Peoples friendship centres, and Métis or Inuit organizations. In addition, teachers may wish to consult the various Ministry of Education publications available, including the “Planning Your Program” section of the resource Shared Learnings. This resource was developed to help all teachers provide students with knowledge of, and opportunities to share experiences with, First Peoples in B.C. For more information about these documents, consult the Aboriginal Education website: www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/welcome.htm.

Authentic First Peoples texts and resources

In order to present authentic First Peoples content and worldviews, it is important to draw from First Peoples learning and teaching resources. Authentic First Peoples texts and resources are those that:

  • present authentic First Peoples voices (i.e., historical and contemporary texts created by First Peoples or through the substantial contributions of First Peoples)
  • depict themes and issues important to First Peoples cultures (e.g., loss of identity and affirmation of identity, tradition, healing, role of family, importance of Elders, connection with the land, the nature and place of spirituality as an aspect of wisdom, the relationships between individual and community, the importance of oral tradition, the experience of colonization and decolonization)
  • incorporate First Peoples story-telling techniques and features as applicable (e.g., circular structure, repetition, weaving in of spirituality, humour)

Because of the diversity of First Peoples communities in B.C. and Canada and indigenous peoples in the rest of the world, and the need to provide a relevant context for classroom instruction and assessment, it is suggested that resource selection focus primarily on First Peoples texts and resources from the local community wherever possible.  

Introduction to Spanish

The Spanish curriculum presents what students are expected to know, do, and understand in Grades 5 through 12. It provides teachers with a framework for immersing students in learning experiences through which they can gain new perspectives, engage with Hispanic communities, and become proficient users of Spanish.

Features of the Spanish curriculum

Integration of components

The Spanish curriculum represents an integrated approach to language acquisition. With this approach, the following components of language acquisition are viewed as interconnected rather than as existing in isolation:

  • Reading, writing, listening, speaking, and interacting – These essential competencies are the foundation of language acquisition. As they rarely exist in isolation in authentic communication contexts, they are integrated throughout the curriculum. Each element of the curriculum supports the simultaneous development of multiple competencies.
  • Grammar – With a focus on the purposeful use of language to communicate meaning, grammatical instruction plays a supportive role.
  • Culture – Language is inextricably bound to culture. Culture is a vehicle for acquiring a deeper understanding of a given language, of others, and of oneself. Authentic communication always takes place in a cultural context, and language acquisition activities in the classroom must therefore be situated within such a context. As students explore the Spanish language and the Spanish-speaking world, they simultaneously acquire both the language and an understanding of the diversity of Spanish culture and the relationships between the two. This contributes to their appreciation of other cultures as well as their own.
  • Language-learning strategies – Language-learning strategies are seen as a vehicle for helping students succeed in their language acquisition journey and are integrated throughout the curriculum.

Flexible teaching and learning

The Spanish curriculum allows for instructional flexibility. For example, the curriculum components can be combined in different ways to provide a diverse range of learning opportunities. Within each grade, there are multiple ways to combine Content and Curricular Competencies in creating lessons, units, and learning experiences to lead students to discovery of the generalizations and principles of the Big Ideas. The curriculum encourages the use of a range of approaches that both support language instruction and acquisition and support students’ learning in a manner best suited to their diverse abilities.

Use of a wide variety of text types

The Spanish curriculum encourages the use of a wide variety of text types. “Text” in the Spanish curriculum refers to all forms of oral, written, visual, and digital communication.

Teachers are encouraged to use a wide range of grade-appropriate text types in their classrooms. Teachers may choose to use authentic (primary source) and/or adapted (translated into Spanish) texts with their students to encourage:

  • student comprehension
  • student exposure to target vocabulary and patterns
  • the saliency of high-frequency vocabulary and patterns

Integrating First Peoples content and perspectives

The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring that the cultures and contributions of First Peoples in British Columbia are reflected in all provincial curricula.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning have been affirmed within First Peoples societies to guide the teaching and learning of provincial curricula. Because these principles of learning represent an attempt to identify common elements in the varied teaching and learning approaches that prevail within particular First Peoples societies, it must be recognized that they do not capture the full reality of the approach used in any single First Peoples society.

The First Peoples Principles of Learning are woven throughout and greatly influence the Spanish curriculum. They lend themselves well to language learning, as they promote experiential and reflexive learning, as well as self-advocacy and personal responsibility in students. They help create classroom experiences based on the concepts of community, shared learning, and trust, all of which are vital to language acquisition.

Design of the Spanish curriculum

The Spanish curriculum follows the same format as is used in all other curricular areas and is based on the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Students learn through Content (Know), Curricular Competencies (Do), and Big Ideas (Understand). More information on the curriculum model is available at https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/curriculum/overview.

Big Ideas

The Big Ideas are generalizations and principles discovered through experiencing the Content and Curricular Competencies of the curriculum – the “Understand” component of the Know-Do-Understand model of learning. Big Ideas represent the “aha!” and the “so what?” of the curriculum – the deeper learning.

From year to year, students discover new Big Ideas and also build on the Big Ideas from previous years. The example below from the Spanish curriculum illustrates how the theme of culture grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning as they progress through the grades.

 

5

7

9

11

Big Ideas

Each culture has traditions and ways of celebrating.

Knowing about diverse communities helps us develop cultural awareness.

Acquiring a new language allows us to explore our identity and culture from a new perspective.

Language and culture are interconnected and shape our perspective, identity, and voice.

 

Curricular Competencies

Curricular Competencies are what students should be able to “Do” with their Content knowledge. Language acquisition is very process-driven, and “Doing” plays an important role. Since the goal is proficiency in using the language rather than learning about the language, more elements are included in the Curricular Competencies column of the Spanish curriculum than in the Content column. Through purposeful communication in class, students develop competencies in listening to understand, communicating effectively, presenting their ideas in Spanish with confidence and fluency, and understanding the connections between language and culture.

Students also build on their application of the Curricular Competencies from year to year. The example below illustrates how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

11

Curricular
Competencies

Comprehend simple stories

Comprehend meaning in stories

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Derive meaning in speech and a variety of other texts and contexts
Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Content

Content represents the core knowledge students will have – what they are expected to “Know.” In language acquisition, Content represents the pieces students must have to be able to use the language at a given grade level (i.e., to apply the Curricular Competencies). In each grade, each of the Content learning standards supports multiple Curricular Competencies (the “Do” component of the curriculum).

Students build on their Content knowledge from year to year. Some Content learning standards bridge more than one year because they may take longer to fully acquire or they may support increasingly complex Curricular Competencies. When identical Content learning standards appear across multiple grades, elaborations further clarify how deeply the Content learning standard is expected to be covered at each grade. The examples below illustrate how the curriculum grows with students and expands the scope and depth of learning.

 

5

7

9

11

Content

Basic information about themselves and others

Opinions and preferences

Personal interests, needs, and opinions

Personal lifestyles and relationships
Explanation and justification of opinions

Elaborations

Elaborations have been provided in many places throughout the curriculum.  They offer additional clarification and support for teachers, including definitions, examples, and information regarding the depth and breadth to which topics should be covered at a given grade. Examples provided in the elaborations are not intended to be comprehensive lists of what must be covered in a given grade; they are simply examples. Elaborations may be particularly useful to teachers who are new to teaching Spanish.

 

Big Idea

Curricular Competency

Content

Grade 8

Creative works are an expression of language and culture.

Narrate stories, both orally and in writing

Spanish  works of art

Elaborations 

Creative works: representing the experience of the people from whose culture they are drawn (e.g., painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, poetry and prose, filmmaking, musical composition, architecture)

Narrate:

  • use common expressions of time and transitional words to show logical progression.
  • Use present, past and future time frames.

works of art: e.g., creative works in dance, drama, music, or visual arts, with consideration for the ethics of cultural appropriation and plagiarism

Important considerations

Diverse contexts

Throughout British Columbia, students learn Spanish in many contexts. Schools where Spanish is offered are organized in different ways, resources and support available to teachers and students vary among different schools, and Spanish teachers range from beginning generalists to highly experienced specialists. While these diverse factors may result in variations in instruction, the flexibility of the Spanish curriculum is purposefully designed to support teachers and students in a wide range of contexts.

Language of instruction

It is important that Spanish be used as the language of instruction for the Spanish curriculum. As Spanish is a minority language in British Columbia, opportunities for students to use the language outside the classroom may be limited. Research shows that increasing exposure to and use of the target language is essential to increasing proficiency. Therefore, while it is also understood that students at times may need some discussions or examples in the prevailing language of the school, both teachers and students are encouraged to use Spanish at every opportunity.

Benefits beyond linguistic ability

The Spanish curriculum supports the principle that Spanish language learners gain not only the ability to communicate effectively in Spanish but also experience many other benefits, including:

  • improved overall cognitive development and creative thinking
  • the development of cultural awareness and understanding
  • a deepened understanding of their own identity
  • an enhanced understanding of their first language
  • language-learning strategies that can be transferred to additional languages

Engaging with the Hispanic community

In language education, all aspects of learning are enriched when students engage with members of the target language community. Engagement with Hispanic communities and people can mean different things in different contexts. It may include, for example:

  • inviting community members into the classroom (in person or virtually)
  • making connections with other Spanish classes and schools
  • attending festivals, films, concerts, plays, and other cultural and community events
  • frequenting stores, restaurants, and community centres where Spanish is used
  • interacting with the pre-approved and secured online Hispanic community through blogs, chats, and other forms of social media

Teachers are encouraged to provide a variety of these experiences for their students. Students, particularly in the upper grades, are also encouraged to seek and initiate engagement with Hispanic communities and people, to help build their identity as Spanish speakers and to foster opportunities to continue their acquisition of the Spanish language beyond graduation.

Links to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

The Ministry of Education remains supportive of teachers who wish to make use of the CEFR as a supporting tool in their Spanish classroom. The Ministry recognizes that the CEFR can be a valuable assessment tool and that a number of language teachers in the province are currently using it with their students and would like to continue to do so.

Working with First Peoples communities

To address First Peoples content and perspectives in the classroom in a way that is accurate and that respectfully reflects First Peoples concepts of teaching and learning, teachers are strongly encouraged to seek the advice and support of members of local First Peoples communities. As First Peoples communities are diverse in terms of language, culture, and available resources, each community will have its own unique protocol to gain support for integration of local knowledge and expertise. Permission for the use or translation of cultural materials or practices should be obtained through consultation with individuals, families, and other community members. This authorization should be obtained prior to the use of any educational plans or materials.

To begin discussion about possible instructional and assessment activities, teachers should first contact First Peoples education coordinators, teachers, support workers, and counsellors in their district who will be able to facilitate the identification of local resources and contacts, such as Elders, chiefs, First Nations tribal or band councils, First Peoples cultural centres, First Peoples friendship centres, and Métis or Inuit organizations. In addition, teachers may wish to consult the various Ministry of Education publications available, including the “Planning Your Program” section of the resource Shared Learnings. This resource was developed to help all teachers provide students with knowledge of, and opportunities to share experiences with, First Peoples in B.C. For more information about these documents, consult the Aboriginal Education website: www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/welcome.htm.

Authentic First Peoples texts and resources

In order to present authentic First Peoples content and worldviews, it is important to draw from First Peoples learning and teaching resources. Authentic First Peoples texts and resources are those that:

  • present authentic First Peoples voices (i.e., historical and contemporary texts created by First Peoples or through the substantial contributions of First Peoples)
  • depict themes and issues important to First Peoples cultures (e.g., loss of identity and affirmation of identity, tradition, healing, role of family, importance of Elders, connection with the land, the nature and place of spirituality as an aspect of wisdom, the relationships between individual and community, the importance of oral tradition, the experience of colonization and decolonization)
  • incorporate First Peoples story-telling techniques and features as applicable (e.g., circular structure, repetition, weaving in of spirituality, humour)

Because of the diversity of First Peoples communities in B.C. and Canada and indigenous peoples in the rest of the world, and the need to provide a relevant context for classroom instruction and assessment, it is suggested that resource selection focus primarily on First Peoples texts and resources from the local community wherever possible.